This is not explained in the model of Atkinson and Shiffrin. Also it suggests we have to rehearse everything for it to be stored in long term memory when in real life we do not rehearse everything in order for it to be remembered. This means this could only apply to experimental conditions. Furthermore it is oversimplistic as it doesn’t describe in detail and we know that there are more long term memory stores than just the one. However, they were the first people to attempt to make a model of the brain and they have shown a
The experiment produces the primary effect, where many words are recalled from the beginning of the list, and the recency effect, where many words are also recalled from the end of the list, but not so many from the middle. This study also shows that there are separate short term and long term memory stores since the primary effect occurs because the words at the beginning of the list have been rehearsed, and so are transferred into the long term memory store. However, whilst this is going on, less attention is paid to the middle words and they tend to be lost unless they have some special significance to the individual. The words at the end of the list are well recalled because they are still fresh in the memory system unless there is a distractor task which causes this information to be lost through interference, displacement, or decay. This evidence can be seen as reliable since it was scientific, conducted in a laboratory, and produced quantative data that makes it easy to summarise and compare with other data.
Short term memory (STM) is considered as incoming information from the sense which we attend to for only a short period of time. Only when we attend to the incoming sensory information and rehearse it does that information transfer from short term memory to long term memory. Short term memory is thought to be limited to 18-30 seconds, information that is not processed into long term memory is then lost through decay or displacement. The three main areas to memory are encoding, which is the way information is changed so it can be stored in memory. The information enters the brain via the senses including eyes and ears, it is then stored in various forms such as visual codes (pictures), acoustic form (sound based) or semantic form (how we attach meaning or experiences) Encoding
Outline and Evaluate the Working Memory Model The working memory model (WM) explains why we can do two different tasks at the same time, but not two similar tasks. It replaced the idea of a unitary short term memory (STM) In the working memory model information is passed from STM to the central executive and this decides if the information is visual or auditaory. Information is then passed to the corrersponding store. The central executive is a key componant of the WM. It directs information from STM to one of the "slave systems" It also has a very limited capacity and duration so can't attend to too many things at once.
Describe and evaluate explanations for forgetting There are several explanations as to why we forget particular information in an ‘everyday’ context. This essay will examine the different explanations of forgetting – specifically trace decay, displacement, interference and cue dependent forgetting. Forgetting from short term memory is usually due to lack of availability as STM has limited capacity& duration. Forgetting from long term memory is due to lack of accessibility, the information is still there due to LTM’s unlimited capacity and duration, but at the point of recall it is inaccessible to the person. One explanation of forgetting from short term memory is called trace decay which assumes that memories leave a trace in the brain.
The research suggests that capacity of short term memory could only be enlarged by grouping items together known as chunking. By chunking information, we are more likely able to remember it whether in single or combined forms which is why it’s known as the magical number seven plus or minus two. However, the experiment could also be criticised in the sense that there could have been experimenter bias and demand characteristics. It also isn’t ecologically valid since people don’t have to memorise random letter and numbers all the time. Nevertheless,
Nonsense syllables do not stand for abbreviations and has no meaning therefore participants cannot relate to the word. Avoids elaborative rehearsal hence the experiment can be deemed accurate. Examples of how recall and recognition can be used in real life Recall: In a test situation, recalling would be trying to answer a short-answer question or trying to remember a specific and exact quote in a story book you would have to use in an English essay. Recognition: Picking an answer in a Multiple-Choice Question in a test situation. Limitation Some participants may have been tired or sleepy during the experiment which may have affected their memory ability as the experiment was carried out in the morning
Outline and evaluate the multi-store model of memory. (12 marks) The multi store model of memory is the system that describes the process of memorising things and is an information processing system that we all have. The MSM is split into three sections they are: sensory, short term memory and long term memory. The researchers that came up with this idea were Atkinson and Shiffrin in 1968. They investigated the idea that memory wasn’t a single process but involved more than one stage.
An example would be: I look up a part number and remember it long enough to order one. Many of your short term memories are forgotten, but if enough attention is given some of these memories can be taken to the next stage. Long term memory is the continuous storage of information. Freudian psychology, calls this the preconscious and unconscious. Most of the time you are not aware of what memories are being stored, but can be called upon at a later time.