Alyce Archer 12D2 Outline and evaluate the multi store model of memory (12) Atkinson and Shiffrins (1968) multi store model of memory is a diagram explaining how the information flows in a linear process from one storage unit to another in a structural process. The model is made up of three unitary stores: Sensory memory, which takes in the enviromental stimuli (touch, smell, sound, sight and taste). This information can decay in as little as 2 seconds if it is not attended to. However if you do pay attention to it it will flow through to the Short term memory, where 5-9 items can be stored at one time, the duration of this is 18 seconds then it will decay or be displaced by new infromation, unless rehearsal takes place. There are two types of rehearsal: Maintance rehearsal and Elaborate Rehearsal.
The working memory model was proposed by Baddeley and Hitch in 1974 to replace the multi-store model as it was too simplistic and did not explain how memories are transferred into the long term memory without repetition. The working memory model, in addition to temporarily storing and repeating information, focuses on short term memory and proposes a multi-component as opposed to a unitary system. The term 'working memory' refers to the part of the memory that is active or working, such as collecting data to be stored. The working memory model is made of four areas; the central executive, phonological loop, visuo-spatial sketchpad, and the episodic buffer. The central executive controls attention, and is involved in planning and synthesizing information from the other two 'slave systems'.
It also controls attention and plays a major role in planning and synthesizing information, not only from the subsidiary systems but also from LTM. It is flexible and can process information from any modality, although it does have a limited storage capacity and so can attend to a limited number if things at one time. Another part of the working memory model is the phonological loop, it stores a limited number of speech-based sounds for brief periods. It is thought to consist of two components - the phonological store (inner ear) that allows acoustically coded items to be stored for a brief period and the articulatory control process (the inner voice) that allows sub-vocal repetition of the items stored in the phonological store. Another important component is the visuo-spatial scratch pad; it stores visual and spatial information and can be thought of as an inner eye.
It is divided into the phonological store and the articulatory process. The phonological store called the ‘inner ear’ deals with auditory information and preserves the order of the information. It has duration of about two seconds unless rehearsal by the articulatory process occurs. However, on the other hand the articulatory process is like the ‘inner voice’. It explains evidence for acoustic coding in short term memory.
Review 1. What is the sequence that best reflects the order in which memory processes occur, from first to last. Encode Store Retrieve 2. Which are the first three memory processes identified at the beginning of chapter 7 in your text? Encode, Store, Retrieve When we use the term remembering in day to day life, we are making reference to the memory process of what?
Outline and evaluate the multi-store model of memory (12 marks) Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968) developed the multi-store model of memory to describe how the whole memory is structured. Incoming information enters a sensory memory for a brief period of time. A tiny fraction of it is then transmitted to the short term memory where it can be held and influenced. A little of that information is then transferred to the long term memory for more permanent storage. Sensory memory is the memory stores of all the info that your senses take in, it is held long enough for us to pay attention to it, if wanted, and then initially process it before it transfers to the short term memory.
At this point it is either disregarded or transferred to the short term memory (STM) store. STM is used to temporarily store information that is currently being thought about and has a limited storage capacity allowing information to be stored for short duration’s only. In order for the STM to process the information it needs to encode the information into a format it can handle. The STM encodes
The working memory model consists of four parts: episodic buffer, phonological loop, central executive and visio spatial sketchpad; The episodic buffer is a fairly recent addition to the working memory model. Its purpose is to bind together all of the information from the other components of working memory with information about time and order. This prepares memories for storage in the episodic LTM. The phonological loop consists of two parts, Articulatory Control System and the Phonological Store. The Articulatory Control System rehearses information verbally and has a tiny capacity
The multi store model of memory is split into three different stores. The sensor memory, short term memory (STM) and long term memory (LTM). All three memory stores can contain a different capacity of memories, get encoded in a different way and the duration of the memory is also different. Our memories first get processed by paying attention to our surroundings, environment and to pieces of information we want to remember. This information enters the sensor memory.
Outline and evaluate the working memory model. (12marks) Baddley and Hitch argued that unlike the multi-store model that has only one store for short term memory (stm), the stm actually consists of several complex and active components that all work together. In the stm, information is transferred and temporarily held before being combined with our long term memory (ltm). These different components all work together however, still store different types of information separately. For example, our verbal information will be stored in one component, while our visual information will be stored in another.