However if the information receives attention, it will pass on to short term memory. The information held in short term memory is in a fragile state. The information is rehearsed and the information stays since it is in the 7+-2 capacity for short term memory. By maintenance rehearsal, the information can be transferred to long term memory. In long term memory there is a much larger capacity and the duration is possibly lifelong.
Discuss the value of the Multi Store Model of memory (12 marks) The MSM of memory consists of four main components: the Attention System (Sensory Store), the Short Term Store (often known as the working memory), the Rehearsal Loop and the Long Term Store. The Attention System filters incoming information. If this information is paid attention to, it gets transferred into the Short Term Store. However, if the information is not acknowledged it is lost/decays. The Rehearsal Loop allows the rehearsal of information resulting in it being transferred into either the Long Term Store, or due to maintenance rehearsal, the information will be able to stay stored in the Short Term Store.
The long term memory stores unlimited amount of information for a lifetime through semantic encoding. However, it may be forgotten because memory traces can decay, ‘new’ information which causes confusion and interferes with the old information or particular cues within the environment are not available causing retrieval failure. Many investigations/ experiments/ case studies have been undertaken to test the Multi-store memory model. This essay will give both the strengths and weaknesses of the MSMM. Peterson and Peterson investigated the duration of the Short Term Memory in 1959.
STM is described as working memory because it is used to emphasise the active part of memory where information we are consciously aware of is actively ‘worked on’ in many ways. Working memory enables us to consciously use information from sensory memory and LTM. I think working memory is more appropriate because when we are consciously paying attention to sensory information we are ‘working’ the short term memory. 7. Information might be forgotten if it is not rehearsed to remain in our LTM or if we are distracted by new information which pushes out the information already in our STM.
The multi store model (Atkinson and Shiffrin, 1968) is a classic model of memory. It is sometimes called the modal model or the dual process model. Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968) suggest that memory is made up of a series of stores (see below) The multi store model (Atkinson and Shiffrin 1968) describes memory in terms of information flowing through a system. Information is detected by the sense organs and enters the sensory memory. If attended to this information enters the short term memory.
This allowed them to zoom in and focus in on specific portions of their chosen environment, using the complexity and spatial richness of the specific portion to associate with the ideas or items to be remembered. The overall ability to focus and use small portions and specific details of the environment to aid in memory allowed these memory experts to memorize virtually infinite lists of ideas and/or items within a single environment. A single environment could even be used for multiple lists because of the special way in which memory experts were trained to expand, isolate, and focus in on specific portions of the environment. However, a more common form required less extensive training. First, the person would objectify the items within a list and place them around a familiar environment.
In addition information in the short term memory store is encoded acoustically; this theory is supported by Conrad’s 1964 case study where an experiment was conducted that confirmed Atkinson and Shiffrin’s theory that the STM encodes information acoustically. Their findings showed after rehearsal the info is transferred from the STM to Long term memory store if not rehearsed information is lost through decay. When in the LTM, the material can last for up to a lifetime when rehearsed or is of semantic value. LTM encodes information that is semantic. There are many strong points to consider in terms of the multi store model of memory.
The transfer of this information between the stages may require re-coding. The memory traces in shorty-term memory are fragile and can be lost within 30 seconds through displacement or decay, unless rehearsed. This then creates long-term memory, where it can remain for a lifetime, although loss is possible from this store by decay, retrieval failure or interference. Long-term memory has unlimited storage, and is split into two memories Procedural memory which is a knowledge of how to do things and skills. Declarative memory is a memory for specific information or facts, which can be sub-divided into Semantic storage for language and general knowledge.
The research by Sperling demonstrated that we can access more than 9 bits of information if we try and access them quickly enough from sensory memory but if this is left longer than 1 second this access fades away. Research by Miller demonstrates that short term memory operates as a limited capacity store by demonstrating that it can only hold between 5 and 9 bits of information before becoming overloaded resulting in information being displaced. Petersen and Petersen (1959) demonstrated that short term memory has a limited time span of around 20 seconds and without rehearsal the information soon fades. Furthermore, support for the existence of separate short term and long term memory stores comes from serial position effect experiments carried out by Glanzer and Cunitz (1966). They found that participants recalled more words from the beginning (the primacy effect) and the end of a list of words (the recency effect).
Information passes through each stage/store by control processes. The information must pass through all stages in order to get to the end. SENSORY MEMORY The sensory memory receives incoming information. The information it receives is sensual i.e.visual or auditory. The Sensory Memory Store has a limited abilility to store information, any information received will either decay or by taking notice of the information can then continue forward to the (STM).