Abstract Fonts can attract different kinds of attention, and also different levels of processing and memory. In this experiment we were particularly interested to see if font styles have any influence on people’s abilities to recall information with the three specific font styles we chose: normal (Times New Roman), all-capitalized and cursive. Our hypothesis was that it was much easier to remember something if the information appeared in the normal font. The participants were college students in a Cognitive Psychology course (N = 27). Each participant received a one-page fictional story and was then tested on recall of the important points covered in the story.
Glanzer and Cunitz (1966) came up with the theory of the “Serial Positioning experiment”. They gave participants in their experiment three lists of words to remember. It resulted in participants remembering the first list of words (known as Primacy effect), and the last list of words (known as Recency effect), completely forgetting the middle list. This experiment supports the idea of the Multi Store Model as it states that the LTM and the STM are unitary stores (they cannot subdivide into different components). Glanzer and Cunitz suggested that the first list of words
Describe and evaluate 2 models of memory. The Multi-Store Model (MSM). The multi-store model which is also known as Atkinson-Shiffrin memory model which was first recognised in 1968. The model identifies three stores: Sensory memory, Short-Term memory and Long-Term memory and it explains how information is transferred between these stores. The information enters the sensory memory model which is stimulated by the sensory form which remains unaltered in the mind for a brief time before decaying.
A model of memory is Atinson and Sriffrins 1968 multi- store model of memory. The multi-store model of memory shows that memory goes into seperate stores, first being the sensory memory where the sense organ picks up the sense, through iconic and echoc storage ecoding, the duration of the sensory memory is incredibly short of only lasting between a 1/4 and a 1/2 of a second. if attented to, the information from the sensory memory will pass to the short term memory. Once in the short term memory, the information is encoded mainy auditory and the duration is very short, with it only lasting about 0-18 seconds. its said that the capacity of stm is 7+-2 chunks, as millers study 1956 showed as showed the stm could hold approximatley 7 chunks of information at one time.
To what extent does the Multi Store Model offer a reasonable account of human memory? The Multi Store Model was designed by Atkinson and Shiffrin in 1968. The model proposes there are three different memory stores: sensory memory, short term memory and long term memory. Information from the environment is constantly received by the sensory memory store; most of it being irrelevant information. However if the information receives attention, it will pass on to short term memory.
Structure of the multi-store model According to the multi-store model of memory (Atkinson & Shiffrin, 1968) memory can be explained in terms of 3 stores (sensory store, short term store and long term store) and 2 processes (attention and rehearsal). Information first enters the sensory store (also known as sensory memory) directly from the senses. It remains in the sensory store for a maximum duration of around 2 seconds before it decays and is replaced with new information. If information in the sensory store is attended to then it can be passed to the short term store. Around 7 plus or minus 2 chunks of Information (Miller, 1956) can be stored in the short term store (also know as short term memory).
Multi-store Model of Memory The Multi-Store Model of Memory is a study of memory and explains how the memory works. Atkinson and Shriffrin (1968) suggested that memory comprised of three separate memory stores, the Sensory memory (store), the Short Term Memory (STM) and the Long Term Memory (LTM). The Multi-Store Model also shows the processes by which the information is passed to each store. The model suggests that human memory involves a sequence of these three stages. Information passes through each stage/store by control processes.
The multi store model (Atkinson and Shiffrin, 1968) is a classic model of memory. It is sometimes called the modal model or the dual process model. Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968) suggest that memory is made up of a series of stores (see below) The multi store model (Atkinson and Shiffrin 1968) describes memory in terms of information flowing through a system. Information is detected by the sense organs and enters the sensory memory. If attended to this information enters the short term memory.
Multi-Store Model of Memory The multi-store model is the explanation for how memories are processed. It explains why only a few things are remembered and why some things are remembered and others aren’t. Atkinson and Schiffrin were the first to describe the multi-store model. They designed a simple diagram to show the multi-store memory: Sensory memory Environmental Stimuli Attention Short-term Memory Maintenance Rehearsal Information Retrieval Elaborate Rehearsal Long-term Memory Retrieval Sensory memory Environmental Stimuli Attention Short-term Memory Maintenance Rehearsal Information Retrieval Elaborate Rehearsal Long-term Memory Retrieval The Multi-store Model has 3 different places for memory storage. Information passes from store to store in a linear way and there are different explanations for forgetting in each store The first store is where sensory memory is processed.
The central executive has a limited capacity; in other words it cannot attend to too many things at once. This is supported by the dual task technique in 1976 where participants were given two tasks to do simultaneously. The first task used the central executive which was a simple sentence verification task e.g. participants were asked to answer true or false when shown the sentence B is followed by A. The second task involved the central executive and the phonological loop where participants had to repeat the word 'the' over and over again whilst working out the sentence verification task.