Multi-store Model of Memory The Multi-Store Model of Memory is a study of memory and explains how the memory works. Atkinson and Shriffrin (1968) suggested that memory comprised of three separate memory stores, the Sensory memory (store), the Short Term Memory (STM) and the Long Term Memory (LTM). The Multi-Store Model also shows the processes by which the information is passed to each store. The model suggests that human memory involves a sequence of these three stages. Information passes through each stage/store by control processes.
different stores for each sense) Short Term Memory • Duration: 0-18 seconds • Capacity: 7 +/- 2 items • Encoding: mainly auditory Long Term Memory • Duration: Unlimited • Capacity: Unlimited • Encoding: Mainly Semantic (but can be visual and auditory) Evaluation of the Multi-Store Model Strengths Many memory studies provide evidence to support the distinction between STM and LTM (in terms of encoding, duration and capacity). The model can account for primacy & regency effects. The model is influential as it has generated a lot of research into memory. The model is supported by studies of amnesiacs: For example the HM case study. HM is still alive but has marked problems in long-term memory after
New information that enters the short term store displaces (pushes out) any information that is already there, meaning that information that is not rehearsed and passed to the long term store is forgotten. When information enters the long term store (also know as long term memory) it remains there for up to a life time (Bahrick et al, 1975). The capacity of the store is potentially unlimited, and encoding is primarily in a semantic format (information is stored by its meaning). Evaluating the multi-store model The multi-store model has fairly high face validity. This means that at first impression it seems to offer a plausible explanation as to how information passes through memory and is either stored or forgotten.
The Rehearsal Loop allows the rehearsal of information resulting in it being transferred into either the Long Term Store, or due to maintenance rehearsal, the information will be able to stay stored in the Short Term Store. The main characteristics of the Short Term Store are its size, which is limited and can only store up to seven pieces of information (plus or minus 2) at a given time, its duration, which is less than thirty seconds, and its encoding, favouring acoustic sounds (recognising information by how its sounds). The main and contrasting characteristics of the Long Term Store are again its size, which is unlimited, its duration, which is a lifetime, and its encoding, favouring semantic forms (recognising information by its meaning). The theory of the Multi Store Model claims that the memory consists of two separate storage areas. Glanzer and Cunitz (1966) came up with the theory of the “Serial Positioning experiment”.
12 marks The multi store model of memory was created by Atkinson and Shiffrin in 1968. Their findings showed that information first enters into the sensory memory which is very short lived. The sensory memory can be produced in two ways Iconic (visual) or Echoic (auditory). When the information has caught the attention of the brain it enters the short term memory which lasts for up to 20 seconds this was discovered in an experiment by Psychologist Peterson in 1959. In addition information in the short term memory store is encoded acoustically; this theory is supported by Conrad’s 1964 case study where an experiment was conducted that confirmed Atkinson and Shiffrin’s theory that the STM encodes information acoustically.
STM is described as working memory because it is used to emphasise the active part of memory where information we are consciously aware of is actively ‘worked on’ in many ways. Working memory enables us to consciously use information from sensory memory and LTM. I think working memory is more appropriate because when we are consciously paying attention to sensory information we are ‘working’ the short term memory. 7. Information might be forgotten if it is not rehearsed to remain in our LTM or if we are distracted by new information which pushes out the information already in our STM.
However if the information receives attention, it will pass on to short term memory. The information held in short term memory is in a fragile state. The information is rehearsed and the information stays since it is in the 7+-2 capacity for short term memory. By maintenance rehearsal, the information can be transferred to long term memory. In long term memory there is a much larger capacity and the duration is possibly lifelong.
The information from the sensory memory will then be encoded and passed into short term memory. Short term memory has scarce capacity and duration nevertheless if the information is processed further by rehearsals, then it can be transferred to long term memory. The capacity and duration of the long term memory is unlimited whereas short term memory has a short duration and can only hold small amounts of information. Various studies have been performed to support this; Glanzer and Cunitz illustrated a functional dissociation where they gave their participants list of words presented one at a time and tested their free recall. Some participants were asked
This process can be completed in several different ways using the different senses. Events in one life can be committed to memory via sight. Most would say that sight is the most effective sense in recovering memories because when one tries to remember a past event, they attempt to visualize it. Simple visualizations of past events usually only come in flashes and don't give an accurate, detailed depiction of the events that occurred. Hearing is the same, if one focuses on the auditory aspects of a memory, they will only recall what was heard and not many other details of the account.
Baddeley and Hitch developed a multi-store model of the short term memory called the working memory model. The model consists of three components which make up the short term memory. The central executive is a key feature of the whole store as it allocates the information to the two “slave systems” which are the visuospatial spatial sketchpad and the articulatory - phonological loop. The VSS stores visual and spatial information. Mental and visual images are an example.