Memory is to do with how we encode, store and retrieve information. The multi-store model of memory was suggested by Atkinson and Shiffrin who said that we have 3 different memory stores: sensory memory, short term memory and long term memory and formed a linear model to demonstrate the process. A key aspect of the model is that the memory stores have different characteristics which include capacity, duration and encoding. Capacity refers to how much information that can be stored, duration is how long the memory lasts and encoding is how the memory is taken in and stored to be recalled later. We have sensory memory stores where information from the outside world is taken in unconsciously so if it is not looked at consciously it can be lost via decay as the duration is very short (possibly up to 2 seconds).
Describe and evaluate the Working Memory Model of Memory (12 marks) The working memory model by Baddeley and Hitch in 1974 is an alternative to the multi- store model, which was limited in its description of the STM. It consists of three main components, the first one being the central executive, which has overall control. The central executive is directs attention to two slave systems, the phonological loop and the visual-spatial sketchpad. The central executive has limited capacity but is able to process information from all the sensory systems, e.g. vision, hearing, etc.
This allowed them to zoom in and focus in on specific portions of their chosen environment, using the complexity and spatial richness of the specific portion to associate with the ideas or items to be remembered. The overall ability to focus and use small portions and specific details of the environment to aid in memory allowed these memory experts to memorize virtually infinite lists of ideas and/or items within a single environment. A single environment could even be used for multiple lists because of the special way in which memory experts were trained to expand, isolate, and focus in on specific portions of the environment. However, a more common form required less extensive training. First, the person would objectify the items within a list and place them around a familiar environment.
Discuss the value of the Multi Store Model of memory (12 marks) The MSM of memory consists of four main components: the Attention System (Sensory Store), the Short Term Store (often known as the working memory), the Rehearsal Loop and the Long Term Store. The Attention System filters incoming information. If this information is paid attention to, it gets transferred into the Short Term Store. However, if the information is not acknowledged it is lost/decays. The Rehearsal Loop allows the rehearsal of information resulting in it being transferred into either the Long Term Store, or due to maintenance rehearsal, the information will be able to stay stored in the Short Term Store.
Declarative memory is a memory for specific information or facts, which can be sub-divided into Semantic storage for language and general knowledge. This is the kind of memory that is tested in experimental work. The other sub-division is Episodic which is storage for personal events and people. This memory may not be reliable because of memory distortions. In 2000 Schachter et al.
Baddeley and Hitch used the term 'working memory' to refer to the part of the memory that is active or working. This could be as simple as playing a game, calculating sums or reading a sentence all of which are collecting data to be stored. The working memory model consists of three parts; these are the central executive, phonological loop and visuo-spatial sketchpad. The central executive controls attention and draws on the other two systems known as the 'slave systems'. The central executive has a limited capacity; in other words it cannot attend to too many things at once.
Substantial evidence exists to support a general dependency of reasoning upon short term memory capacity. The longer information is stored in short term memory the easier it is to manipulate information needed in the execution of complex cognitive tasks (e.g. short term memory has been shown to be correlated with problem solving, learning, reasoning, and reading comprehension). One of the models that attempts to explain how working memory functions is the multi component model of working memory. The articulator loop and the visuo-spatial sketch pad are responsible for short term maintenance of information and the central executive is responsible for coordinating these two systems.
Short-term Memory (STM) or "Working Memory"(WM) In the Atkinson and Shiffrin model, information from the sensory memory enters the STM if it is attended to. The Short term memory is also called ‘working memory’ and holds a limited amount of information for a short period of time (about 18 seconds). Once information enters the short term memory it needs to be converted to a code. research indicates the most commonly used code is phonological/acoustic code (based on sound). At times however, encoding in WM may be visual as well as when some people remember the information in terms of images.
Discuss Theories of Memory and Relate to Your Own Memory Atkinson & Shiffrin (1968) and Badderly & Hitch (1974) produced two well known theories of memory. This discussion will explain the two theories supplying sufficient evidence to support each theory. It will outline any criticisms of each theory and demonstrate ways that I use memory. The disscusion will come to a closure with a final conclusion based on the discussion held. The definition of memory is the ability to store things in a persons mind and to be able to recall them.
Memory is the cognitive process of encoding, storing and retrieving information (Melton 1963) and is also involved in processing vast amounts of information (McLeod, S. A. 2007). Memories could be reliable, as some people are able to hold very vivid details of events in their activated schema. However, the retrieval of memory could be subjected to the change over time through reconstruction and therefore questions the reliability and accuracy of the information recalled. The reliability of memory could be demonstrated by outlining how the encoding and retrieval of memory could be susceptible to reconstruction.