First, the person would objectify the items within a list and place them around a familiar environment. Then, to recall the list in order, the person would imagine navigating the environment along the same path that he or she travelled while placing down the items of the list (Yates, 1966). While the Method of Loci has not been shown to be a better mnemonic then other methods (e.g. peg method), previous studies have shown that is significantly better than rote repetition or imagery, where words items are objectified and sometimes linked to other words within the same list
Outline the multi-store model and working memory model The multi-store model of memory is when information appears in Sensory Memory if attention is given to this it transfers to Short Term Memory, if the information is then rehearsed; it appears in the Long Term Memory. If at any time attention or rehearsal is not given to the information the trace decays and so because of this, we forget, however this need for rehearsal for transference into the Long Term Memory has been criticised as some information can be retained without any form of rehearsal. Within the multi-store model of memory, both Long Term Memory and Short Term Memory differ from each other in various ways; the duration of short term memory is 18 seconds, where as the duration of long term memory is a lifetime. The capacity of short term memory is found to be 7 + OR – 2, compared to long term memory’s unlimited capacity. As far as coding is concerned, there are also differences between short term and long term memory; short term is acoustic and long term is semantic.
This is a type of thinking which explains an action and it is closely related to procedural memory. The ability to remember and create new memories seems to define our life and who we are but how can we organise all the thought and make sure they don’t turn into a complete chaos? Firstly, we can organise our thoughts by using mental images which helps us remember verbal and written information better by making mental pictures in our mind. It is very helpful to use unusual and colourful images as this helps to fix and recall the information in our mind. It is easier to forget blunt and ordinary images.
4. STM is alike to sensory memory in the sense that the information lasts for roughly the same amount of time (short) but is unlike it in the sense of its capacity (STM has a very limited capacity compared to sensory & LTM). 5. F 6. STM is described as working memory because it is used to emphasise the active part of memory where information we are consciously aware of is actively ‘worked on’ in many ways.
Substantial evidence exists to support a general dependency of reasoning upon short term memory capacity. The longer information is stored in short term memory the easier it is to manipulate information needed in the execution of complex cognitive tasks (e.g. short term memory has been shown to be correlated with problem solving, learning, reasoning, and reading comprehension). One of the models that attempts to explain how working memory functions is the multi component model of working memory. The articulator loop and the visuo-spatial sketch pad are responsible for short term maintenance of information and the central executive is responsible for coordinating these two systems.
Describe and evaluate the Working Memory Model of Memory (12 marks) The working memory model by Baddeley and Hitch in 1974 is an alternative to the multi- store model, which was limited in its description of the STM. It consists of three main components, the first one being the central executive, which has overall control. The central executive is directs attention to two slave systems, the phonological loop and the visual-spatial sketchpad. The central executive has limited capacity but is able to process information from all the sensory systems, e.g. vision, hearing, etc.
Baddeley and Hitch used the term 'working memory' to refer to the part of the memory that is active or working. This could be as simple as playing a game, calculating sums or reading a sentence all of which are collecting data to be stored. The working memory model consists of three parts; these are the central executive, phonological loop and visuo-spatial sketchpad. The central executive controls attention and draws on the other two systems known as the 'slave systems'. The central executive has a limited capacity; in other words it cannot attend to too many things at once.
Baddeley and Hitch developed a multi-store model of the short term memory called the working memory model. The model consists of three components which make up the short term memory. The central executive is a key feature of the whole store as it allocates the information to the two “slave systems” which are the visuospatial spatial sketchpad and the articulatory - phonological loop. The VSS stores visual and spatial information. Mental and visual images are an example.
Remembering some aspects of experience leads, by association, to other, but the sequence cannot be predicted and may seem confused to a listener. Cognitive interviewing is designed to facilitate accurate recall through a set of instructions. There are four basic principles, according to Fisher et al. (1989). Event-interviewing similarity Memory of an event such as a crime is enhanced when the psychological environment at the interview is similar to the environment at the original event.
The last is the social schema, which represents information about groups of people such as Americans, women, etc, and this is how stereotypes are also developed. According to theorists the main functions of the schema are, organizing information in memory, regulating behaviour, being activated to increase information-processing efficiency, enabling the generation of expectations about objects, events, and people, and they are resistant to change which ensures continuity in the ways we process information and the ways we act. Despite a few limitations that the schema theory has, its generally well accepted and supported. Bartlett (1932) wanted to look at the effect that schemas have on memory. He had his participants read “The War of the Ghosts.” 2 techniques were used.