There are two types of rehearsal: Maintance rehearsal and Elaborate Rehearsal. Maintance rehearsal is when you repeat something over and over to keep it in your STM. Elobrative rehearsal is when you rehearse something in detail and it goes into your LTM, after it has entered your LTM there is a unlimted capacity and duration however if information is not learnt properly in the first place it can decay/interface. information can also be retrieved back to the STM when needed. Evidenece supporting the MSM comes from Squire et al(1992) who noticed when long term memory is engaged the hippocampus was active but when the short term memory was engaged the prefrontal lobes were active.
Sensory memory is the memory stores of all the info that your senses take in, it is held long enough for us to pay attention to it, if wanted, and then initially process it before it transfers to the short term memory. It is able to deal with different information from the senses-images, tastes, sounds, smells and feelings. Its storage duration depends on the type of data it receives. The capacity is quite large but unless attention is paid to the data it disappears very quickly. Short term memory allows us to hold onto information long enough to use it.
Short term memory (STM) is considered as incoming information from the sense which we attend to for only a short period of time. Only when we attend to the incoming sensory information and rehearse it does that information transfer from short term memory to long term memory. Short term memory is thought to be limited to 18-30 seconds, information that is not processed into long term memory is then lost through decay or displacement. The three main areas to memory are encoding, which is the way information is changed so it can be stored in memory. The information enters the brain via the senses including eyes and ears, it is then stored in various forms such as visual codes (pictures), acoustic form (sound based) or semantic form (how we attach meaning or experiences) Encoding
Storage refers to the retention of this information. Finally, retrieval is the recovery of information stored in the brain. Memory is often split into sensory memory, short-term memory (STM) and long-term memory (LTM). Sensory memory refers to memory that is retained for a very short amount of time, normally less than 5 seconds. Iconic memory is visual memory, whereas echoic memory refers to sounds.
There are specific implications. For example, reading and experience are usually "compiled" at the time they happen, using the state of your brain at that time. The same book would get compiled differently at different points in your life. Which means it is very much worth reading important books multiple times. I always used to feel some misgivings about rereading books.
The working memory model was constructed by Baddeley and Hitch in 1974. the model consists 3 main components of the working memory model; the central executive, the phonological loop and the visuo-spatial sketch pad. The central executive acts like a conductor and allocates and coordinates jobs to the other components. The phonological loop is the inner ear and inner voice and this is responsible for processing phonological information, it’s acts as an auditory short term memory. It is a loop because it can store and repeat sound for a period of around 20-30 seconds. It has two subcomponents, the phonological store and articulatory control process.
The following will highlight two models of memory; the multi store model and the working memory model. The Multi store memory was developed by Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968), it explains how the storage flows from one storage system to another which is divided into 3 stages; Sensory Memory, Short Term Memory and Long Term Memory. Information coming from the external stimuli enters the sensory memory; it remains in here for a very short period of time. If information is perceived to be important it then moves on to the short term memory, if it isn’t it will decay. This information once in the short term memory will remain here for a few seconds unless it is rehearsed or displaced as new memories get received.
Which of the following statements best describes the relationship between iconic and echonic memory on one hand and sensory on the other. “ They are both part of the sensory memory.” 8. Information may last for 1 seconds in sensory memory: the capacity of sensory memory is VERY VAST. 9. Rehearsal serves to : a) Refresh sensory memory.
The fourth component is the episodic buffer which holds visual and acoustic information from other components. This is also able to take information from the long term memory and this component was only added in 2000 when Baddely found out that amnesia patients couldn’t store of recall stories from their short term memory. The working memory model has been supported and evaluated by Baddely. He used a tracker task and participants had to follow a moving spot of light as well as looking at a capital ‘F’. He found that participants found simultaneous tracking and imagery hard to do, but they were able to do it with a visual task.
Running head: THE MEMORY PROCESS The Memory Process Patanisha Andrews Psych/550 May 2, 2011 Gaston Weisz The Memory Process The basic memory process is encoding information into memory. Memory is the ability to encode, store and recall information. The three main processes of memory involve encoding, storage and recall. The three types of codes are acoustic (sounds), visual (images or pictures) and semantic (meaningful). Memory is stored and retained overtime then the information is retrieved from the memory when needed.