Atkinson and Shriffin first introduced the multi-store model, in 1968. They proposed that the memory had three main stores, the sensory store; which is made up of several stores, the eyes, nose, ears, fingers and tongue etc. The store memory store, which will hold information for a short period of 18 seconds, this is because the information is in a fragile state and un-rehearsed. Finally the long-term memory store, this is where any information that has been elaborately rehearsed is stored, this store had unlimited duration and capacity. The Sperling study in 1960 supports the theory of the multi-store model and the main store that it supports is the sensory memory store.
In this he analysed research across many studies and concluded that immediate memory span is 7 therefore people can remember on average 7 musical notes/ words/ letters etc. and can also count up to 7 dots when they flash up on a screen but not much more than that. He also found that we can cope better when using the chunking method. The good thing about millers thoughts on chunking is that they were partially correct however, Cowan recently reviewed a variety of studies on capacity of short term memory and found that it is limited to about 4 chunks this suggest that the extent of knowledge that can be held in the short term memory isn’t
Alyce Archer 12D2 Outline and evaluate the multi store model of memory (12) Atkinson and Shiffrins (1968) multi store model of memory is a diagram explaining how the information flows in a linear process from one storage unit to another in a structural process. The model is made up of three unitary stores: Sensory memory, which takes in the enviromental stimuli (touch, smell, sound, sight and taste). This information can decay in as little as 2 seconds if it is not attended to. However if you do pay attention to it it will flow through to the Short term memory, where 5-9 items can be stored at one time, the duration of this is 18 seconds then it will decay or be displaced by new infromation, unless rehearsal takes place. There are two types of rehearsal: Maintance rehearsal and Elaborate Rehearsal.
The short-term memory store has a very limited capacity, i.e. it can only hold, according to Miller (Miller’s magic number), a capacity of 7 +/- 2 bits of information. This information can then last up to 18 seconds, according to Peterson and Peterson (1959). Items in the short term memory store are usually held as sounds although other kinds of encoding are possible. If the material is sufficiently rehearsed, it is then passed on to the long-term memory.
They asked participants to perform a reasoning task while simultaneously reciting outloud a list of six digits. If didgit span really is a measure of maximum STM capacity, participants would be expected to show in paired performance on the reasoning task because their STM would be ocupied retaining the 6 digits. However, they found that participants made very few errors on either the reasoning or digit span task, although the speed of veryfying the sentences was slightly slower than when the task was done alone. Baddeley and Hitch concluded that the STM must have more than 1 component and must be involved in processes other than simple storage; eg, reasoning, undestanding and learning. The working memory model consists of four parts: episodic buffer, phonological loop, central executive and visio spatial sketchpad; The episodic buffer is a fairly recent addition to the working memory model.
Another important component is the visuo-spatial scratch pad; it stores visual and spatial information and can be thought of as an inner eye. It is responsible for setting up and manipulating mental images. Like the phonological loop, it has limited capacity but the limits of the two systems are independent. In other words, it is possible, for example, to rehearse a set of digits in the phonological loop while simultaneously making decisions about the spatial layout of a set of letters in the visual spatial scratchpad. Finally in 2000 Baddeley proposed an additional component, the episodic buffer.
To What Extent Does the Multi Store Model Offer A Reasonable Account of Human Memory? The Multi Store Model was created by Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968). It states that there are three segments to memory: Sensory Memory, Short Term Memory and Long Term Memory. Sensory Memory receives information from all five senses, but only stores this information for a very brief period of time (a matter of milliseconds). If attention is paid to the information, it is transferred to the Short Term Memory, which according to Miller (1977) can store about seven items/chunks.
Outline and evaluate the working memory model. (12marks) Baddley and Hitch argued that unlike the multi-store model that has only one store for short term memory (stm), the stm actually consists of several complex and active components that all work together. In the stm, information is transferred and temporarily held before being combined with our long term memory (ltm). These different components all work together however, still store different types of information separately. For example, our verbal information will be stored in one component, while our visual information will be stored in another.
Stage Model of Memory and Forgetting Jesse M. David St. Petersburg College Abstract The stage model of memory includes three different stages: sensory memory, short term memory, and long term. This model is built off of the idea that information is moved from one stage to another, a process known as encoding. However, this information does not only move from sensory to short term to long term and stay there. It can be brought back to short term from long term. This movement deals with different “cues” that can be a trigger to bring up certain bits of information from long term memory.
The characteristics of primary memory are: limited capacity, linked to long-term memory, and rapid loss of information. The limited capacity suggests that in primary memory information is not stored completely because there is a certain capacity that can hold information. According to what triggers each individual ` s attention, the important information is transferred to the long-term memory. 2. What is the process of memory from perception to retrieval?