Multi-Store Of Memory Outline

979 Words4 Pages
Outline and Evaluate the Multi-Store of Memory The idea of a multi-store memory, was discovered by Atkinson and Shiffrin in 1968, and argues that memory can be divided into three separate structures; Sensory memory, Short-term memory and Long-term memory. Information is thought to enter the memory system through the Sensory memory, then passed on to the Short Term memory when attention is paid to it. If this information is thought about and rehearsed in the Short Term memory it is passed to the Long-Term Memory to help interpret information in Short Term Memory. The Sensory Memory, which is uses visual, auditory and tactile encoding, has a limited capacity however, and a brief duration, so for information to be useful, it has to be passed…show more content…
The experiment produces the primary effect, where many words are recalled from the beginning of the list, and the recency effect, where many words are also recalled from the end of the list, but not so many from the middle. This study also shows that there are separate short term and long term memory stores since the primary effect occurs because the words at the beginning of the list have been rehearsed, and so are transferred into the long term memory store. However, whilst this is going on, less attention is paid to the middle words and they tend to be lost unless they have some special significance to the individual. The words at the end of the list are well recalled because they are still fresh in the memory system unless there is a distractor task which causes this information to be lost through interference, displacement, or decay. This evidence can be seen as reliable since it was scientific, conducted in a laboratory, and produced quantative data that makes it easy to summarise and compare with other data. However, it can be argued that this experiment lacks mundane realism and does not reflect real life memory tasks, also that it doesn’t take into account people’s varying ways of remembering words, which may bias the results. Furthermore, individual differences, such as people’s attention spans were not taken into account, which could…show more content…
The Working Memory model re-formulates the structure of the Short Term memory and argues that its purpose is not to store information and pass it to the Long Term memory, but instead it is the source of our conscious thinking processes. It is a system that allows us to manipulate information, not just store it before passing it on. It is, instead the site of our thinking processes. Rather than being a unitary store, it is made up of a number of subsidiary systems. Research supporting the working memory model can be seen in Baddeley, Thomson and Buchanan’s research in 1975 of the phonological loop. Their research saw participants recalling one word at a time, of varying lengths. They found that performance was superior in short words (monosyllabic), rather than polysyllabic words. This shows that the capacity of the phonological loop is determined by the length of time it takes to say the words to yourself rather than the number of items. So there are some confounding variables that can alter your ability to remember some words, rather than just rehearsal, or attention, as suggested in the multi-store memory model. Of course, this experiment lacks mundane realism, but tested many Participants, and produced quantative data, in controlled laboratory conditions, such can be considered to be
Open Document