At this time the Greek states were continually at war with one another and there was no unity between them. Athens also had a close link to the Ionian Greeks as said by Aristagoras in Herodotus who tells us that “Miletus had been founded by Athenian settlers so it was only natural that the Athenians, powerful as they were, would help her in her need” . However critics suggest that Herodotus’ writing is too anecdotal,
Agesilaus objected to Leotychidas' reign, saying that he was a mere bastard; the prince replied by saying that there was an oracle that warned against a 'lame king.' The debate was concluded when Lysander, Sparta's best commander and a personal friend of Agesilaus, declared that the (lysander, 400b.c). So, in 400, Agesilaus was accepted as king by the Spartans. Lysander was the proponent of a militant and aggressive foreign policy, and from now on Agesilaus had to follow this policy too. In the year of his accession, he sent general Thibron to what is now Turkey in order to protect the Greek towns against oppression by the Persian satrap Tissaphernes.
Persia was experiencing difficulties with Naxos between the democrats and oligarchs, the oligarchs fled to Miletus, where they asked Aristogoras for help to reinstate themselves in Naxos. Possibly seeking to further his own power and favour with Persian masters he insisted he suggest Naxos to be captured this would open way for Persian dominance over the Cyclades and across the Aegean. This back fired when 200 triremes and a force of Persians and Ionians failed to besiege Naxos. Aristogras feared Persian reprisals for the Naxos attack now sought to extricate himself from a difficult situation, he decided to lead a full scale Ionian Revolt.’ (Herodotus, Histories, Book V, 29-37 and 97-107) The Aid of Athens and Eretria sent ships and man to aid the Ionians under the command of Melanthius. The Athenians had some sympathy with the Ionians but were also concerned by the activities of a former Tyrant at the court of Darius, they also looked to establish trade within the Black Sea.
The consequential rise of the Athenian Empire, however, was simultaneous with the development of its increasingly autocratic and aggressive attitude. The aftermath of this conflict therefore involved the Athenian worldview coming to resemble that which it had initially sought to repress. The Persian Wars are demonstrative of how external threats can promote unity and cohesion from within. The ease and aggression with which the Persians conquered the region of the Asia Minor during the sixth century BCE established them as the pre-eminent power in the ancient world, and therefore a threat to Greek autonomy. After King Cyrus of Persia overthrew the Median rulers in 550 BCE, the Persians successfully extended their realm in conquering Lydia (546 BCE), eventually pushing their boarders further eastward by crossing to the boarders of Macedonia in 513 BCE (Encyclopaedia Britannica, 2012).
On the other hand, Maecenas took the role of making Augustus the sole figure as a leader to Rome with his inhibited propaganda as patron for some of the prominent writers of the time based on creating a perception of Augustus as a way ‘for the people’, rather than self ambition. The importance of Agrippa rose indistinguishably as being responsible for most of Octavian’s military triumphs. His role emerged during the ‘Sicilian conflict’ against Sextus Lepidus in 36 BC where after Octavian’s naval failure Agrippa engaged and destroyed the rebels fleet where Suetonius notes he “forced the enemy ships to sheer off “. Octavian’s opposition however, was marked most strongly by Mark Antony where coincidently it was again Agrippa whose military experience and instinct towered above Augustus, whom blockaded the ships of Antony and Cleopatra with a fleet under Octavian’s title. After the inauguration of Augustus of the first settlement, Agrippa’s militaristic conquests became
The first of Alexander’s motivations is that of his “inheritance”. We know from Arrian (1971, p.42), that Phillip had already set out his campaign against Persia and that he was not just after land, but was after retribution. His campaign slogan of “freeing the Greeks” and “punishing the Persians” (Lane Fox, 1974) highlights not only his desire to appear the hero, but to also seek revenge for what had previously been done to his people at the hands of Xerxes. As Tarn (1948) writes, Alexander believed that the campaign and the conquering of Persia was his inheritance. Just as his father had begun the campaign, Alexander would see to it that it was completed.
This is Thucydides' own final judgment. Peloponnesian War: Phase 1 (431-427) In a war between the main military and main naval powers in Greece a decisive result was unlikely to occur quickly. When the Spartans invaded, the rural population of Attica moved into the city. Athens became an island impregnable to attack. Its great fleet would secure the empire against revolts from within and attacks from without and take the offensive to raid the Peloponnesian coast.
Flag this Question Question 18 1 pts Among the dangerous military innovations of Marius threatening the Republic was his use of Greek mercenaries. Recruitment of destitute volunteers who swore an oath of allegiance only to him. theft the state treasury's tax revenues to buy weapons. proclamation of himself as dictator for life. all the above Flag this Question Question 19 1 pts The Twelve Tables was the meeting place of the Roman Senate.
SPARTA'S POLITICS During the classical period Sparta's politics were different from Athens' politics. Athens used tyranny in their government and also used a form of democracy. Sparta did not like the way tyranny worked so they produced a different form of government. The Spartans had a constitution or what they called a rhetra, which came from the Great Rhetra . The Spartans formed a very complex government mixing democracy and oligarchy, and this form of government was a model for other poleis.
Socrates lived during the year of 404 B.C where Athens had surrendered its hegemony to Sparta, ending the Peloponnesian War (431-404 B.C), and Socrates’ associates Critias and Charmides, along with 28 other non-democratic Athenians, were installed as Athens’ new governors by the victorious Spartans. However, it was Meletus, the prosecutor, Anytus and Lycon who convicted Socrates of his alleged crime against the Athenian state as they perceived him to be a potential threat. In my understanding, the one of the reasons why Socrates was perceived to be a threat was due to a misunderstanding of his intentions. Athenians viewed Socrates as a ‘sophist’ and with having close ties with Critias and Charmides who overthrew Athenian democracy and who were a set of charlatans that appeared in Greece after the war that earned ample livelihood by imposing on public credulity: professing to