The Greeks were also receiving propaganda from the Macedonians which they believed over the Persians. The Greeks belief that the Persians were really looking out for their own interests and not what was best for Greece. The Greeks also had a great fear of severe punishment by Alexander if they revolted against him and were defeated. During this time Alexander’s army was still at war in Asia and achieving victories rather easily. Darius’s last attempt was his appeals to Alexander’s Greek allied soldiers to revolt against him or assassinate him.
So, how did the war start? Spartan leaders were afraid of the Athenians would use the naval forces of the Delian League to destroy their control over the Peloponnesian League. During this time, Athens was not like by many of the other city states. Though Spartans invaded the Athenian countryside and destroyed citizens' property, they continuously tired to negotiate a lasting peace term. Athens, upholding their pride, kept refusing.
At the beginning of the period of interest, that is, the beginning of the 5th century Athens is one of the most powerful Greek city states attempting to gain support of other States. Through the Persian Wars they build up their reputation as a protector of the Greek states until near the end of the period where the Athenian empire is formed with allies becoming subjects to the more powerful Athens. Throughout this period Athens built alliances made enemies that led to Athens eventual downfall. The Ionian revolt in 499 BC can be seen as a first attempt by Athens to gain support from Greeks in Asia Minor as Athens provided assistance to the Ionian Greeks in liberating them from Persian occupation therefore allowing them to gain their autonomy back. At this time the Greek states were continually at war with one another and there was no unity between them.
The involvement of Athens and Eretria in the Ionian revolt according to Ehrenberg “put Athens into the center of the unfolding story of the Persian wars”. Herodotus agrees, stating that the dispatch of the ships from Athens and Eretria was “the beginning of the evil for both Greeks and barbarians.” The conflict brought about strong feelings from Athens toward Persia that were carried into future battles. Herodotus records that “the whole episode was probably most important for the later attitudes which it engendered.” The Greeks were motivated into defending their land from the Persians after seeing the fate of the Greeks in Ionia. They knew that if they were conquered according to Ehrenberg that “the freedom of the Greek states would be lost.” Public support in Athens against Persia was gained due to the fate of Miletus. Many Athenians felt that more help should have been provided to protect the cities destruction.
The helots had revolted following an earthquake and had taken up position in the strategic stronghold of mount Ithome. Epilates saw Sparta as a rival and enemy and Cimon managed to persuade the assembly to send a force to help. On arrival the Spartans regretted asking the Athenians and sent them home. Thucydides said this was because of the bold and evolutionary ideas of the Athenians that led to this idea. Thucydides said that the Athenians returning home were deeply offended with this treatment by the Spartans and said it is not what they deserved.
The Persian Wars by: Alec Norwood World History Mr. Jordan 1st Period October 12, 2007 The Persian Wars INTRODUCTION The Persian Wars were fought between the Greeks and the Persians between the years 490 and 479 B.C.E. The main conflict between the Greeks and the Persians began in Ionia, home of Herodotus. Many Pre-Socratic philosophers believe it started because the empire building (land hungry) Persians tried to capture and bring the Ionians under their power and control. The Persians were successful with some of the Ionian Greeks but others asked the mainland Greeks for help because they did not want to be ruled by the Persians (Hooker, 1999). IONIAN REVOLT The wars began in 490 B.C.E.
But King Darius was not going to forgive the Athenian insult. In 490BC, against impossible odds, the Athenian successfully defended against the Persians. However, the frustrated Persian king wanted revenge. Every day, he would have a slave say “Remember the Athenians” before every dinner. However, his dream of burning Athens to the ground would not be realized, and this lust for revenge would be passed down to his son Xerxes.
He held public office from 461 BC to 429 BC. Pericles was a great general and orator. Some of his great achievements were building the Parthenon and the Acropolis, establishing colonies of citizens and using the Athenian navy to keep the Persians out of the Aegean Sea. “He is usually portrayed as a general with a helmet”1 Pericles’ first involvement in politics began in 461BC. His first involvement in politics started when he became involved with a politician Ephialtes.
After gaining control of the rebellious Ionian Greeks in 495 BC, Darius I of Persia realized that they would be a perpetual bother as long as they could gain help and encouragement from the Greek mainland so he determined to conquer Greece proper, secure his western frontier and lay the groundwork for Persia's expansion into Europe. He was also outraged that during the Ionian rebellion an obscure city-state (Athens) from mainland Greece had assisted in the expulsion of the Persians from Sardes, the capitol of the Ionian Greek city-states. His anger was such that he vowed to punish them and every night at dinner he had a servan repeat to him "Lord, don't forget the Athenians" Palace of Darius I Darius had two routes to invade Greece,
Whether it is an influence on science or art, to anyone who has studied Greece in the days of its glory the influences be easily pinpointed. These influences continue into the art of war. As previously stated, war was a constant in Greece so much so that it became imbedded in its very culture. Consequently the way in which war was conducted in ancient Greece has become a portrait of the way in which it should be conducted, and set a standard around the Western world for years to come. Despite war being one of the most immoral, barbaric, and most appalling of all human creations, the Greeks did the impossible, by successfully portraying war as something of beauty, patriotism, freedom and self-sacrifice.