The most vital and significant reason to the First Persian War was Persian Imperialism. Due to the rapid growth of the Persian Empire it involved them in the Aegean region where they first encountered the Ionian Greeks on the coast and then later mainland Greece. This was the key reason that led to the Ionian Revolt of 499-98 and involvement of the Greek states, Athens and Eretria in supporting the Ionian Greeks, later leading in the destruction and burning down of the Persian city, Sardis. This then resulted in King Darius’ determination in punishing these city-states leading to the invasion of 490 BC. Persian Imperialism was the most significant cause of the First Persian war; origins of the Persian Empire were dated back to 584BC, With Cyrus the ruler of a small area Persis.
When the Theban-Athenian alliance was defeated by Macedon at the Battle of Chaeronea, Sparta was taken over. The Spartans refused, however, to attack the Persians with Alexander. Alexander died in Babylon before he could settle them. This triggered yet another Greek civil war which Sparta used to break from Thebes. The Romans then saw Sparta as a good conquest, and brought the Achaeans against the
With their superior tactical skills, the Greeks were able to defeat the Persians and take control of the waterways. The victory at Salamis turned the tide of the war, and gave the Greeks renewed confidence. Xerxes was devastated at this significant loss, and returned to Persia leaving his land army under the command of Mardonius. The Battle of Salamis was the most decisive conflict in the Second Persian War because the victory at Salamis paved the way to the ultimate defeat of the Persian army at the
The Greek army decisively defeated the more numerous Persians, marking a turning point in the Greco-Persian Wars. The Battle of Marathon in 490 BC was the result of Persian revenge, after the Greek city-states of Athens and Eretria involved themselves in the Ionian Revolt from 499-493 BC. According to modern historian, Peter Green, the Persians sought to attack Athens with a fighting force of approximately 25, 000 men, of both foot soldiers and cavalry. The Athenians had to bring together their whole hoplite force to defeat the Persians. The Persian force was nearly double that of the Greeks, however due to Miltiades’ reliable expertise on Persian warfare, he was aware that the most elite soldiers would fight in the centre with the weaker ones at the wings.
It all started when King Darius decided to conquer the tiny Greek city states of mainland Greece. King Darius sent messengers to ask for presents of Greek earth and water, which would be a sign that the Greeks would accept rule by the Persians. Instead, the Greeks threw the messengers in wells and pits, and told them that was their earth and water. King Darius was furious and sent soldiers and cavalry by ship to Greece, and they assembled themselves on the plain of Marathon. Miltiades, a great general for Greece, convinced other Greek commanders that the Greeks should fight the Persians at Marathon.
Spencer Raub P-4 Neuman Military History 9/13/14 Spartan Last Stand While there are many theories regarding Leonidas' choice to stay at the Thermopylae pass, many believe that it was most likely a strategic decision to prevent the Persian cavalry from running down the retreating army. Other historians believe that Leonidas’ stayed at the pass because he had an ultimatum to fulfill that was given to him by the Oracle at Delphi. The oracle had told Leonidas before he set out for battle that the sons of Persia will destroy everything he knows and loves or all of Sparta must mourn for the loss of a king. Many believe this had great influence on his decision to stay at the pass. But all in all what most historians debate is not why Leonidas stayed but whether or not his decision to stay was the overall right choice.
The Greeks being citizen soldiers fought for their homes; families; religious shrines; city states; to preserve their new democratic way of life; and their desire to be free and rule themselves without an oriental overlord. The Persian army were conscripted and therefore they were not fighting to defend their homeland. As a result of this they were often poorly trained and some only took part in the army and battles as a way of impressing the king. As well as conflicting reasons behind the victory, the Persians and Greek army adapted many different fighting strategies. The Greeks had their advantage in close range.
It is well assumed that without the Coalition of the Greek states the Greeks could not have won the Persian war "the Greek achievement in the wars was amazing. Under the threat of Persian conquest a group of cities, many hostile to and jealous of one another, joined in a Hellenic league in order to present a united front against the invader." - Sidney Fine. Sparta’s involvement in as a founding member of the league gives good evidence to the extent of the Spartan significance in the war. “Ten years later, the battle at
Agesilaus objected to Leotychidas' reign, saying that he was a mere bastard; the prince replied by saying that there was an oracle that warned against a 'lame king.' The debate was concluded when Lysander, Sparta's best commander and a personal friend of Agesilaus, declared that the (lysander, 400b.c). So, in 400, Agesilaus was accepted as king by the Spartans. Lysander was the proponent of a militant and aggressive foreign policy, and from now on Agesilaus had to follow this policy too. In the year of his accession, he sent general Thibron to what is now Turkey in order to protect the Greek towns against oppression by the Persian satrap Tissaphernes.
This is Thucydides' own final judgment. Peloponnesian War: Phase 1 (431-427) In a war between the main military and main naval powers in Greece a decisive result was unlikely to occur quickly. When the Spartans invaded, the rural population of Attica moved into the city. Athens became an island impregnable to attack. Its great fleet would secure the empire against revolts from within and attacks from without and take the offensive to raid the Peloponnesian coast.