Both Lysander and King Pausanias actions demonstrated their incapability to lead Sparta which consequently resulted in the ineffective leadership of Sparta as hegemon of Greece. Lysander was the dominant figure in Spartan politics presiding the fall of the Athenian Empire in 404 BC, and his and Sparta’s aim was a far as possible to secure Greek hegemony allowing for Spartan Imperial expansion. The ‘anomaly’ of Lysander’s dominance within Sparta’s military and political enterprises, traditionally governed by the Kingships, saw him exploit his foreign policy across the populas of the Aegean much to their discontent “The Spartans reckoned that they themselves, having defeated the Athenians, would now securely dominate the whole of Greece” (Thucydides 8.2.4). Lysander installed a brutal pro-Spartan oligarchy (known as ‘The Thirty Tyrants’) on Athens, reciprocating this system of government in other Greek states in order to suppress prevailing democracies. Installed to govern were pro-Spartan Harmosts, all supported by a garrison of troops who served under the orders of Lysander.
Athens had trade interest in the Ionian region. So Athens encouraged the Ionians when they revolted against Persia in 499 BC. This enraged Darius and he led the 1st Greco-Persian war and was defeated in 490 BC in the battle of Marathon. His son, Xerxes led the 2nd invasion against Athens. In the meantime, the Athenians convinced the Greek city states that Persia was a serious security threat for the whole region and formed an alliance against the Persians.
Due to the lack of morale, war weariness and economic crisis the unrest was beginning to form a dangerous revolution. (J Hite & C Hinton. 2000) Fearing for his life and under the advice of his Supreme Commander General Ludendorff William II the Kaiser of Germany handed over his power to a civilian government thereby abdicating his throne. He then left Germany and went into exile in Holland, where he lived until 1941. The new regime headed by Prince Max, attempted some reforms but ultimately this was ineffective due to the discontent and anger within the population of the failed war.
When the Theban-Athenian alliance was defeated by Macedon at the Battle of Chaeronea, Sparta was taken over. The Spartans refused, however, to attack the Persians with Alexander. Alexander died in Babylon before he could settle them. This triggered yet another Greek civil war which Sparta used to break from Thebes. The Romans then saw Sparta as a good conquest, and brought the Achaeans against the
Besides the economic damage, Ionian cities suffered from political pressure: in all the cities, ruled by Persians there were tyrants appointed. The failure of The Scythian Campaign of Darius disrupted the prestigious of his army. At last, the fewness of Persian troops located in the western part of Asia Minor made Greeks confident of the fast victory. The history of Fifth century BC deserves special attention. It was an excellent example of how the mistakes in the organization can spoil the results.
It all started when King Darius decided to conquer the tiny Greek city states of mainland Greece. King Darius sent messengers to ask for presents of Greek earth and water, which would be a sign that the Greeks would accept rule by the Persians. Instead, the Greeks threw the messengers in wells and pits, and told them that was their earth and water. King Darius was furious and sent soldiers and cavalry by ship to Greece, and they assembled themselves on the plain of Marathon. Miltiades, a great general for Greece, convinced other Greek commanders that the Greeks should fight the Persians at Marathon.
On the 29th October a mutiny among some sailors who refused to obey orders disputed. Prince Max’s government lost control of this political situation and so the sailors spread the mutinies. On the 6th November another change occurred, Soldiers and Workers Councils had been established in major cities. This made it very clear that the October Reforms had failed to impress the German people. This political change had become so revolutionary that on 9th November that the Kaiser removed from the throne and a
Caesar would later destroy what was left of the republic. Over the years as an empire, the political system appeared to be a ball and chain to the public. “ The political office was seen as a hardship, not an asset to the public. There was nearly constant warfare among the Roman leaders themselves in the century leading up to 31 B.C., when the Roman Empire was established. One of the most difficult problems was choosing a new emperor.
Spencer Raub P-4 Neuman Military History 9/13/14 Spartan Last Stand While there are many theories regarding Leonidas' choice to stay at the Thermopylae pass, many believe that it was most likely a strategic decision to prevent the Persian cavalry from running down the retreating army. Other historians believe that Leonidas’ stayed at the pass because he had an ultimatum to fulfill that was given to him by the Oracle at Delphi. The oracle had told Leonidas before he set out for battle that the sons of Persia will destroy everything he knows and loves or all of Sparta must mourn for the loss of a king. Many believe this had great influence on his decision to stay at the pass. But all in all what most historians debate is not why Leonidas stayed but whether or not his decision to stay was the overall right choice.
Persia was experiencing difficulties with Naxos between the democrats and oligarchs, the oligarchs fled to Miletus, where they asked Aristogoras for help to reinstate themselves in Naxos. Possibly seeking to further his own power and favour with Persian masters he insisted he suggest Naxos to be captured this would open way for Persian dominance over the Cyclades and across the Aegean. This back fired when 200 triremes and a force of Persians and Ionians failed to besiege Naxos. Aristogras feared Persian reprisals for the Naxos attack now sought to extricate himself from a difficult situation, he decided to lead a full scale Ionian Revolt.’ (Herodotus, Histories, Book V, 29-37 and 97-107) The Aid of Athens and Eretria sent ships and man to aid the Ionians under the command of Melanthius. The Athenians had some sympathy with the Ionians but were also concerned by the activities of a former Tyrant at the court of Darius, they also looked to establish trade within the Black Sea.