Outline and evaluate the issues associated with the classification and/or diagnosis of schizophrenia (24 marks) Schizophrenia is a severe debilitating psychotic disorder that involves abnormal perceptions and thoughts. It has been described as a disintegration of the personality. The person loses insight and touch with reality thus failing to realise that they have a mental problem. It involves a range of psychotic symptoms where there is a break from reality. Crow (1980) distinguishes between two types of schizophrenia: Type 1 is characterised by positive symptoms were something is added to the sufferer’s personality such as auditory or visual hallucinations; Type 2 is characterised by negative symptoms where something is take away such as there is lack of emotion or limited use of speech.
Common treatments known to science are; Chlorpromazine, Haloperidol, Perphenazine, Fluphenazine. These medications are antiphicotics, all of which help patients endure their symptoms. The common side effects vary between but are not limited to restlessness, dizziness, tremors, and rapid heartbeat. Though there is not cure for schizophrenia, a cure is still being researched. People that suffer from this illness are medicated to help them live successful independents lives, in serious cases patients are taken care of in specialized facilities or treatment
Jordaan (2013) explains that psychosis refers to a cluster of symptoms, among these disruptions in moods, thoughts, perception, language and behaviour. Jordaan goes on to say that Schizophrenia is the most common psychotic disorder with psychosis being the primary and central set of symptoms, although not all symptoms present in all people. These symptoms can be categorised as positive (active symptoms) and negative symptoms (absence or decline of normal functions) (Jordaan,
Treatment During an episode of schizophrenia, you may need to stay in the hospital for safety reasons. MEDICATIONS Antipsychotic medications are the most effective treatment for schizophrenia. They change the balance of chemicals in the brain and can help control symptoms/ These medications are usually helpful, but they can cause side effects. Many of these side effects can be improved, and should not prevent people from seeking treatment for this serious condition. Common side effects from antipsychotics may include: •Sleepiness (sedation) •Dizziness •Weight gain •Increased chance of diabetes and high cholesterol •Feelings of restlessness or "jitters" •Slowed movements •Tremor Long-term use of antipsychotic medications may increase your risk for a movement disorder called tardive dyskinesia.
Other mental illnesses such as schizophrenia require a doctor to prescribe medication to keep the systems under control. While medication can help the patient live a normal life, it will not cure schizophrenia. In regards to providing needed services to the mentally ill the concept of deinstitutionalization has been effective. State and federal money has been used to fund services for outpatient care. These services include medication, and counseling.
Depression and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy i Depression and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Your Name Course Information Professor May 2013 Depression and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy i Abstract Depression is a common psychological problem that has both physical and mental symptoms. “Some authorities have estimated that at least 12% of the population have had or will have an episode of depression of sufficient clinical severity to warrant treatment” (Beck, 1979). Some of the features of depression include negative thought processes and loss of concentration or memory. Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) has emerged as one of the most promising treatments for the problem of depression. CBT has many advantages in treating depression, such as helping patients recognize and address negative thoughts.
is a complex disorder characterized by hallucinations (mostly being hearing voices), delusions (beliefs with no basis in reality), and disturbances in speech. Psychiatrists classify the symptoms into negative and positive categories for schizophrenia. The positive symptoms include hallucinations, delusions, thought disorders, and an altered sense of self. The negative symptoms are a lack of motivation or apathy, blunted feelings, depression or social withdraw. There are three main types of Schizophrenias.
They revolutionised psychiatry by allowing the most disturbed schizophrenic patients live outside a psychiatric hospital, or reduce their average length of stay. However, many critics have called these drugs pharmacological straitjackets. Some drugs are more effective in treating acute positive symptoms such s hallucination, thought disorder and delusions; they seem to work by blocking the D2 receptor of dopamine. There are two main two main drug categories; neuroleptic drugs which are the more traditional used drugs and the newer version atypical drugs. Common neuroleptic drugs such as Thorzine aim to block the activity of the neurotransmitter dopamine within 48 hours, which have proven to be effective.
A diagnosis can consist of hallucinations, delusions, strange behavior, lack of social skills, inability to feel pleasure, poverty of speech, and psychomotor retardation. There are many speculations about the causes of schizophrenia—some even believe that cannabis use (especially at such a young age) can increase the likelihood of forming it; along with a light body weight. Also, there are treatments out there for schizophrenia but the one that works the most effectively is an antipsychotic drug working in about 70% of patients. Only about 1 in 5 people recover from schizophrenia because some refuse the drugs or relapse from major stressors or the family
Different patients will have different symptoms which will indicate what type of schizophrenia they have. These are assed by looking at positive symptoms (something added to you surroundings) and negative symptoms (lack of some emotional responses or thought processes). Positive Symptoms: