Biological Explanations Of Schizophrenia Essay

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Outline the biological bases of schizophrenia and depression. Schizophrenia is a psychotic disorder, characterized by major disturbances in thought, emotion and behaviour. It was originally called dementia praecox by Emil Kraepelin (1896), as he believed that typical symptoms, such as delusions, hallucinations, attention deficit and bizarre motor activity were due to a form of mental deterioration, which began in adolescence. But the term ‘schizophrenia’ was introduced by Swiss psychiatrist, Eugen Bleuler in 1911, literally meaning ‘split mind’ or ‘divided self’. The symptoms of schizophrenia are usually divided into positive and negative types. Positive symptoms refer to behavioural excess, such as delusions, hallucinations and disorganized…show more content…
Earlier in the century, insulin and electroconvulsive treatments were used very often, but they are no longer much used, primarily because of the availability of antipsychotic drugs, in particular the phenothiazines. In numerous studies these medications have been found to have a major beneficial impact on the disordered lives of schizophrenic patients. Drugs alone are not a completely effective treatment, as schizophrenic patients may need to be taught and retaught ways of dealing with the challenges of everyday life. Psychoanalytic theory assumes that schizophrenia represents a retreat from the pain of childhood rejection and mistreatment. (Gerald C. Davidson, John M. Neale, 1998)Family therapy, aimed at reducing high levels of expressed emotion, has been shown to be valuable in preventing relapse. More recently, behavioural treatments such as social skills training have helped patients, who have been discharged from the mental hospitals meet the inevitable stresses of family and community living. The most effective treatments for schizpophrenia are likely to involve both biological and psychological components, because schizophrenia is thought to be one of the most serious forms of mental disorder, along
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