The prodromal phase of schizophrenia is characterized by dysphoria, petulance, transient psychotic symptoms, alogia, anhedonia, gaucheness and social withdrawal. Schizophrenia is caused by multi-factorial elements with the main ones being genetics, in-utero infections (and injury), substance abuse and environmental stressors (such as poverty). Schizophrenia is classified into seven categories: simple schizophrenia, residual type, paranoid type, undifferentiated type, disorganized type, catatonic type and post-schizophrenic depression. The main mechanism for schizophrenia is outlined by the dopamine hypothesis which states that schizophrenia occurs when there is an abnormal activity of dopaminergic neurons in the brain and thus, the positive symptoms (of schizophrenia) appear when the dopaminergic activity within the mesolimbic system is increased, and the
(Newspapers, comedians, etc.) Schizophrenia at one in history was called "dementia praecox", which means "youthful insanity". This was because it tends to occur early in one's life. It is still the most common mental disorder for practitioners of psychiatry. In 1968, the American Psychiatric Association defined schizophrenia as: "a psychosis characterized chiefly by a slow and insidious reduction of external attachments and interests and by apathy and indifference leading to impoverishment of interpersonal relations, mental deterioration, and adjustment on a lower level of functionary.
This mental disorder makes it difficult to differentiate between what is reality and what is fantasy. The symptoms of schizophrenia are divided into positive and negative symptoms. An individual must display at least two positive symptoms or one positive symptom as well as a negative symptom. Positive symptoms are symptoms that are only present in people with schizophrenia and atypical to the average person, such as hallucinations. Negative symptoms include deficits of standard emotional responses, such as lack of motivation or inability to experience pleasure.
 Two groups of mood disorders are broadly recognized; the division is based on whether a manic or hypomanic episode has ever been present. Thus, there are depressive disorders, of which the best-known and most researched is major depressive disorder (MDD) commonly called clinical depression or major depression, and bipolar disorder (BD), formerly known as manic depression and characterized by intermittent episodes of mania or hypomania, usually interlaced with depressive episodes. However, there are also psychiatric syndromes featuring less severe depression known as dysthymic disorder (similar to but milder than MDD) and cyclothymic disorder (similar to but milder than BD).  Mood disorders may also be substance-induced or occur in response to a medical condition. Personality disorders are a class of mental disorders characterised by enduring maladaptive patterns of behavior, cognition and inner experience, exhibited across many contexts and deviating markedly from those accepted by the individual's culture.
An anxiety disorder is diagnosed if the persons response is not appropriate for the situation, if the person cannot control the response, or if the anxiety interferes with their normal functioning. Anxiety disorders include post traumatic stress disorder, obsessive compulsive disorders, specific phobias, panic disorders, generalized anxiety disorder and social anxiety disorder. Psychotic Disorder - Psychotic disorders involve distorted awareness and thinking. Two of the most common symptoms of psychotic disorders are hallucinations - the experience of images and sounds that are not real, such as hearing voices and delusions, which are false beliefs that the ill person accepts as true,
Disorganized schizophrenia is when their behavior or speech is much unorganized and could cause inappropriate emotion. Catatonic schizophrenia causes one to repeat another ones behavior or speech purposely. Undifferentiated schizophrenia has many and varied symptoms. Residual schizophrenia has withdrawals. Someone can have an identical twin and only one could have schizophrenia.
The penitent usually makes therapists feel uncomfortable or guilty, demand special treatment, become uncooperative and ungrateful, and provoke crises with self-destructive actions, which lead to inappropriate or unnecessary therapy or treatment. Currently, there is no cure for schizophrenia, but the illness can
1.1. Describe the main types of mental ill health according to the psychiatric (DSM/ICD) classification system: mood disorders, personality disorders, anxiety disorders, psychotic disorders, substance related disorders, eating disorders, cognitive disorders. Mood disorders: Is the term designating a group of diagnoses in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM IV TR) classification system where a disturbance in person's mood is hypothesised to be main underlying feature. Personality mood: are conditions in which an individual differs significantly from an average person in terms of how they think, perceive, feel or relate to others. Anxiety disorders: Is a feeling of unease, such a worry or fear, that can be mild or severe.
Psychosocial family intervention in schizophrenia: a review of empirical studies. Psychological Medicine, 21, 423-441. Mueser, K. T., Bond, G. R., & Drake, R. E. (2001). Community- based treatment of schizophrenia and other severe mental disorders: treatment. Medscape General Medicine, 3, (1).
unit 12 1.1 Describe the main types of mental ill health according to the psychiatric (DSM/ICD) classification system: mood disorders, personality disorders, anxiety disorders, psychotic disorders, substance-related disorders, eating disorders, cognitive disorders. Is the term designating a group of diagnoses in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM IV TR) classification system where a disturbance in person's mood is hypothesised to be main underlying feature. Personality mood: are conditions in which an individual differs significantly from an average person in terms of how they think, perceive, feel or relate to others. Anxiety disorders: Is a feeling of unease, such a worry or fear, which can be mild or severe. Psychotic disorders: are mental illnesses that are characterised by psychotic symptoms, which can generally be described as a loss of contact with reality.