Outline and Evaluate the Biological and/or Psychological Treatments of Schizophrenia

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Schizophrenia is a mental illness which is characterised by both positive symptoms such as delusions, hallucinations and disordered thinking, and negative symptoms such as a loss of normal emotional responses, speech and motivation. There are a range of treatments from biological to psychological treatments such as chemotherapy, electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) and cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT). Antipsychotics were originally developed to calm patients facing surgery, and they proved highly effective in reducing the incidence of death from surgical shock. Chlorpromazine and related phenothiazines were soon used in psychiatric patients, starting in the early 1950s. They revolutionised psychiatry by allowing the most disturbed schizophrenic patients live outside a psychiatric hospital, or reduce their average length of stay. However, many critics have called these drugs pharmacological straitjackets. Some drugs are more effective in treating acute positive symptoms such s hallucination, thought disorder and delusions; they seem to work by blocking the D2 receptor of dopamine. There are two main two main drug categories; neuroleptic drugs which are the more traditional used drugs and the newer version atypical drugs. Common neuroleptic drugs such as Thorzine aim to block the activity of the neurotransmitter dopamine within 48 hours, which have proven to be effective. The brain is composed of many separate systems of communicating neurons that interact in complex ways. Neurons carry electrical impulses through their branches and communicate with other neurons by giving out chemicals into the tiny fluid spaces between sending and receiving neuron branches (referred as synapse). Dopamine neurotransmitters stick to the receiving neuron (receptors are shape to fit certain neurotransmitters). Neuroleptic drugs molecules are shaped so that they stick to the

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