* Personality disorders: defined by experiences and behaviours that can differ from the social norm. Individuals diagnosed with a personality disorder may experience difficulties in cognition, emotiveness, interpersonal functioning or control of impulses * Anxiety disorder: excessive feelings of anxiety and fear, where anxiety is worry about future events and fear is a reaction to current events. * Psychotic disorders: refers to an abnormal condition of the mind, and is the term for a mental state often described as involving a "loss of contact with reality". People suffering from psychosis are described as psychotic. * Substance-related disorders: when an individual consumes a substance (drugs, alcohol) in amounts which are harmful to themselves or others.
amusement or indifference) whereas irrational beliefs will lead to unhealthy emotions (e.g. fear or panic). Ellis claimed that irrational beliefs can lead to negative and inappropriate emotions. In 1967 Beck indentified the cognitive triad which consisted of three main cognitive biases that lead to disorders such as depression; a negative view of the world, a negative view of themselves and a negative view of the future. These biases interrelate and tend to perpetuate someone's depression.
Schizophrenia refers to a psychiatric disorder which affects the coherence of one’s personality due to emotional instability and detachment from reality. It is mainly associated with anxiety disorders and depression. The symptoms of schizophrenia are outlined hereafter: auditory hallucinations, disorganized patterns of speech (characterized by preponderance of word salad) and thought processes, paranoid delusions, lethargy, social withdrawal (or isolation), impaired social cognition, impairment of executive functioning and catatonia. Usually, the onset of these symptoms manifests itself in young adulthood (20-30 years of age). The prodromal phase of schizophrenia is characterized by dysphoria, petulance, transient psychotic symptoms, alogia, anhedonia, gaucheness and social withdrawal.
Risk assessments are also designed to manage and identify areas of concern, either to the patient or health professional’s involved in the care of the patient. Areas of risk assessment may include suicide or self harm, absconding, aggression or violence, substance use, vulnerabilities and neglect, non adherence or compliance. These areas of assessment may include past risk and current risk factors (Edward, Munro, Robins & Welch, 2011). Risk assessment of the patient is important but also risk towards others. Patients with paranoid schizophrenia are more opportunistic in behaving aggressively or violently towards co-patients and/or staff, which is why implementation of such assessment tools have been put in place (Langan, 2008).
‘Outline and evaluate classification and diagnosis of OCD’ 24 marks OCD is an anxiety disorder characterized by obsessions that lead to compulsions. Obsessions manifest themselves as repetitive, recurring and unwanted thoughts, which cause anxiety and are a product of the individual’s own mind. One example may be the constant thought that something negative will happen to you. This obsession will then lead to a compulsion, which the patient believes will prevent these unwanted thoughts coming to life. For example, the idea that by keeping everything abnormally clean and organised the thought that something negative will happen to you will be prevented.
Psychotic Disorders – Schizophrenia, Delusional Disorder where hearing and seeing things or having unusual beliefs which other people don’t experience or share. Substance Related Disorders – Alcohol or Drug related where either physical (the need more due to build up of intolerance or getting sick if you withdraw) or psychological (lost control over the usage) Eating Disorders – Anorexia Nervosa, Bulimia where abnormal eating habits, either excessive food intake. Cognitive Disorders – Delirium, Dementia, Mental health issues that affect learning, memory, perception and problem solving. 2. explain the key strengths and limitations of the psychiatric classification system Strengths Inappropriate behaviours can be distinguished from functional ones. Mental disorders are arranged, organised and described in
An anxiety disorder is diagnosed if the persons response is not appropriate for the situation, if the person cannot control the response, or if the anxiety interferes with their normal functioning. Anxiety disorders include post traumatic stress disorder, obsessive compulsive disorders, specific phobias, panic disorders, generalized anxiety disorder and social anxiety disorder. Psychotic Disorder - Psychotic disorders involve distorted awareness and thinking. Two of the most common symptoms of psychotic disorders are hallucinations - the experience of images and sounds that are not real, such as hearing voices and delusions, which are false beliefs that the ill person accepts as true,
This mental disorder makes it difficult to differentiate between what is reality and what is fantasy. The symptoms of schizophrenia are divided into positive and negative symptoms. An individual must display at least two positive symptoms or one positive symptom as well as a negative symptom. Positive symptoms are symptoms that are only present in people with schizophrenia and atypical to the average person, such as hallucinations. Negative symptoms include deficits of standard emotional responses, such as lack of motivation or inability to experience pleasure.
They may say they hear voices telling them what to do. Schizophrenia is one type of psychosis, it is a lack of insight, and they hallucinate, and have feelings of persecution. They may have suffered damage to their personalities as a child, which makes them powerless to control their impulses. They go with their need without thinking about if it’s right or wrong or the