Assess the Impact of External Factors on the Educational Under-Achievement of Working-Class Children.

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Cultural deprivation is the theory that many working-class and black children are inadequately socialised and therefore lack the ‘right’ culture needed for educational success. There are 3 main elements to the Cultural Deprivation Theory and these are; intellectual development, language/linguistic deprivation as well as attitudes and values. On the other hand, material deprivation is poverty; a lack of basic necessities such as a healthy diet, good housing conditions, clothing or the money to buy things. In education, material deprivation theory explains working-class under-achievement as the result of the lack of resources, for example, parents cannot afford to buy them equipment for school. As for intellectual development in working class children, working-class homes lack books, educational toys and activities that stimulate educational development. This could be due to the fact that the parents cannot afford it, they don’t have any free time to sit down and help their children with their educational needs or because the parent didn’t receive good grades when they went to school so therefore they are not fussed about their child’s education. This means that these children start school at a disadvantage. Middle-class children would have already been brought up with educational toys and activities and their parents would have probably read to them from a young age. This shows that working-class parents cannot afford to buy expensive toys and books to help their children throughout school as well as the fact that working-class parents can lack confidence if they have had a poor education themselves. Bereiter and Englemann claimed the language of working-class homes was deficient being made up of gesture and disjointed phrases rather than whole sentences and clear instructions. Schools require children to explain, describe and enquire. Therefore, working-class
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