He Argued That Because Working Class Parents Are Likely to Be Less Supportive of Their Child’s Intellectual Development This Has an Impact on Them. This Could Then Lead to Underachievement as It Would Mean the Child Is Always Behind

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Cultural deprivation sociologists see three factors as accountable for working-class under-achievement. One such factor being the lack of intellectual stimulation. Working class families are less likely to give their children educational toys and activities that will stimulate their thinking and reasoning skills, and less likely to read them. This effects their intellectual development so that when they begin school they are at a disadvantage compared with middle-class children. Another factor responsible for working-class under-achievement is the restricted speech code. Bernstein (1975) distinguish between elaborated and restricted speech codes. He says that the working class use the restricted code. The restricted speech code is less analytic and more descriptive, has a limited vocabulary and is formed of simple sentences or even just gestures. The middle class however, use the elaborated code. This is more analytic, with a wide range of vocabulary and complex sentences. Crucially, the elaborated code is the one used in education, by teachers, exams, textbooks, university interviews etc. This gives the middle class an educational advantage. Yet another factor responsible for working-class under-achievement is the working-class subculture. Cultural deprivations recognize three aspects of working-class subculture that contribute to under-achievement. One aspect is immediate satisfaction – wanting rewards now rather than being willing to make sacrifices and working hard for future rewards different to the deferred gratification practised by the middle class. The second aspect is fatalism – the belief that ‘whatever will be, will be’. Working-class children don’t believe they can improve their position through their own individual efforts. The final aspect is low value on education – Hyman argues that the working class don’t value education, so they don’t try.
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