Asses the View That Culture Deprivation Is the Main Cause of underachievement amongst working class students. It may be argued that due to lack of family structure and social, a child is more likely to underachieve. There are many cultural deficiencies often associated with a child's potential and achievement. Cultural deprivation is a theory that many working-class children are inadequately socialised and therefore lack the "right" culture appropriate for a successful education. Working class children are less likely to succeed because they are less likely to be found in nursery schools, less likely to go to university and more likely to be poor readers when they start school, more likely to be in lower sets and streams in secondary school, more likely to leave school early, more likely to underachieve at GCSEs and a level, more likely to be excluded and suspended .This is because the middle-class culture children are adequately prepared for school, but it's totally reverse for working-class culture, it basically fails to prepare children adequately for educational success.
Payne stated that students should learn the “hidden rules” of the middle class from their educators so that they have another set of rules to use if they choose to do so. Impoverished students, compared to students of middle or upper class, often have a lack of proper funding, thus, a lack of appropriate resources to use in their education. Due to this, they are often unprepared for school, not having the money to purchase books and other educational tools. Both authors realize this, but argue that the responsibility lies on different shoulders. Payne states that impoverished students face inequality at school, insinuating that the school should be responsible for helping to provide for these students so that they can have a better education.
Material depravation is the lack of money and resources in the home. Sociologists who are ‘material depravation sociologists’ believe that the main cause of underachievement is lack of money and resources due to poverty. Overcrowding can lead to children not being able to study/ do homework, there may also be disturbed sleep, also, in a crowded household, children have a higher risk of accident. Families living in temporary housing will also be worse off as it means the child may have disrupted education. Howard (2001) noted that young people from poorer homes have lower intakes of energy, vitamins, and minerals.
Environment 14 up wards At this age if a child has not been able to move away from poverty area then their life will be fighting to improve it on little money and a lot of hope At this age the lack of parents input can course problems, emotionally and they don't always understand how money works as they have always been given it. Most would rather have parents love then money. Restricted environment can stop children becoming all they can be and cause disruptive and emotional behavioural outbursts or go the other way and can close inside them
One factor for the working-class under-achieving is that the working-class families are less likely to give their children toys that are educations, stimulating their thinking and reason skills. Another factor is that they are also less likely to read to their children also. These theorist believe that this effects the children’s intellectual development so when they begin, they are immediately at a disadvantage when compared with the middle-class children Secondly, another factor that is seen as responsible for the working-class to be under-achieving is known as “restricted speech code”. A sociologist called Bernstein has distinguished speech into two: “elaborated speech code” and “Restricted speech code”. The middle class are said to use the elaborated speech code , this tends to be a wide range of vocabulary and complex sentences.
This supports bowlby’s theory that failure to form attachments has an irreversible effect on emotional development. This research however can be criticised because it lacks external validity. This is due to the fact that it was a longitudinal study, and during the 16 years there would have been participant drop off. This means that there would be less participants and therefore a smaller sample size, so it cannot be generalised. There is also the chance of social desirability as some people are likely to pretend they have a better relationship with their parents/children so they seem like better parents than they think they are.
Children of separated couples may also perform worse at school and have poorer future employment prospects. Some children are less likely to have successful relationships themselves as adults. However, it is not inevitable that all children will suffer long term harm from the break up of a parent’s relationship. Reference: One plus One strengthening relationships www.oneplusone.org.uk New Sibling: Very young children will find this the most difficult to cope with, vying for parental attention for the first time. Some children may ‘play up’ in response to the stress of the life change.
Social: Anti-social behaviour- If parents show anti-social behaviour it may impact on the child being put into care Addictions- If children live with addicted adults they may be under a lot of stress and experience poverty. This may cause their attendance at school to drop which will impact on their achievements. Bereavement and loss- This can impact on the child's emotional and physical health as they may not know how to respond to this. Adults can also find it difficult to care for the child if they loose a family member which could result in the child going into care. Economic: Health Status- if a child has a condition, their education and home life can be affected as they may not be able to attend school as much as other children.
It is said that children from a middle class background are more likely to do better than children from a working class background. One of the main arguments is because working class children are culturally deprived. Being culturally deprived means that you are deprived from the values needed for school for you to succeed. Being culturally deprived can affect a child’s education as they’re more likely to disagree with the schools system, making them not pay attention or wanting to learn. This can cause them to drop out and not Finnish there education so they would only being able to get a working class job.
Children are hindered by these kinds of schools, teachers and peers lay a big role in the children’s lives. Some teachers are there for the income it will bring into their house hold and not the well-being of the child and students are pressued by their peers into thinking that education is lame and for losers. In most cases this is what children of low income go through but not all. Many may not realize that the surroundings of children may sometimes affect their future. Being raised in a low income area surrounded by people living the same lifestyle as you as if struggling is the norm of society.