Assess the View That Factors Outside the School Are the Main Cause of Differences in the Educational Achievement of Different Social Groups

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Assess the view that factors outside the school are the main cause of differences in the educational achievement of different social groups There is still a very big difference in achievement between pupils from different social classes, even after the introduction of state education in 1870. There are two causes for this: external and internal factors. Internal factors are the factors within schools and the education system, e.g. interactions between pupils and teachers, and inequalities between schools. External factors are factors outside the education system, e.g. influence of home and family background and wider society. Some sociologists would argue that it is the factors outside the school that are the main cause of differences in the educational achievement of different social groups. One theory for this is material depravation. Material depravation is the lack of money and resources in the home. Sociologists who are ‘material depravation sociologists’ believe that the main cause of underachievement is lack of money and resources due to poverty. Overcrowding can lead to children not being able to study/ do homework, there may also be disturbed sleep, also, in a crowded household, children have a higher risk of accident. Families living in temporary housing will also be worse off as it means the child may have disrupted education. Howard (2001) noted that young people from poorer homes have lower intakes of energy, vitamins, and minerals. Poor nutrition will affect health, children’s energy levels will be low, resulting in poor concentration in class, they will also have a weaker immune system meaning more days off of school. Wilkinson (1996) ‘the lower the social class, the higher the rate of hyperactivity, anxiety, and conduct disorders’ which obviously have a negative impact on education. There is also the
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