In a poor socioeconomic group, students are more likely to drop out of school; this happens since the environment around them does not allow them to achieve an academic goal or have parents who support them. The government should implement more programs to help in the contribution for poor families. With poverty, children can experience stress or depression, hence, not obtaining a career.
Also they will have a weaker immune system causing them to miss school due to illness. They also believe material deprivation causes them to have less school resources such as books and pens so they have fewer opportunities to learn. They have no access to private schools and tuition. Pupils in private schools or having private tuition are proven to receive higher grades than those in public schools. This was supported by the National Child Development Study which found that children from low income households were an average of 9 months behind in their education compared to others.
He argues that this is due to working-class parents being less likely to support and encourage their child’s intellectual development at home, therefore they are intellectually deprived compared to the middle-class pupils they are at school with. Sociologists such as Douglas believe that working-class homes often lack the books, educational toys and activities that would stimulate a child’s intellectual development. Language is another factor that is believed to create a social class difference. Basil Bernstein (1975) identified a language difference between the middle-class and working-class. He said the working-class are more likely to use the ‘restricted code’ which include limited vocabulary and is based on the use of short and unfinished, grammatically simple sentences, whereas the middle-class are more likely to use the ‘elaborated code’ which includes a wider range of vocabulary and is based on longer and grammatically more complex sentences.
Intellectual development is one aspect to cultural deprivation. Many theorists argue that many working class children lack equipment at home for example books and toys, so they can’t prepare themselves for school. The reason for the lack of equipment is because their parents get low paid working jobs so they can’t afford the equipment. Even if the parents can afford books J.W.B Douglas (1964) found that the parents wouldn’t help their children with reading or give them enough support for school. Basil Bernstein and Douglas Young (1967) found that middle class mothers would buy books and toys that would encourage their thinking and reasoning skills and prepare children for school.
This pessimistic view on the abilities of low socioeconomic income youth continues to influence their lack of academic performance. Children who are raised under harsh financial circumstances are deprived of the psychological and educational resources leaving them ill prepared and more likely to be unsuccessful adults in the future. Economics and race plays a factoring role in the quality of living conditions of many individuals. In the American society many people are struggling to make ends meet within their everyday lives. Many are living from paycheck to paycheck, essentially not always guaranteed the proper wages in order to meet all of their needs.
Cultural factors have a profound effect on social class differences in educational achievement, as evidenced firstly by the research of Gibson and Asthana, who surmised that the lower or serving classes are more likely to suffer from material deprivation in their home life, which in turn may hold the children back if they are deprived such adequate resources as a computer, correct textbooks or even writing materials, this can inhibit a child’s educational potential severely, as can living in a smaller house; the consequence of this being that they will be much less likely to possess a private, quiet study area of their own. In extreme situations, it is possible for children may have an inferior diet and an improperly heated house, which could result in illness and unexpected absences from school, in turn lower grades result. According to the research, the effects of material deprivation are cumulative, creating a cycle of deprivation. This would suggest that home background surely influences a child’s education. Next, the amount of money one’s family possesses and the quality of area one lives in affects the quality of school one is able to enrol in and attend.
Cultural deprivation sociologists see three factors as accountable for working-class under-achievement. One such factor being the lack of intellectual stimulation. Working class families are less likely to give their children educational toys and activities that will stimulate their thinking and reasoning skills, and less likely to read them. This effects their intellectual development so that when they begin school they are at a disadvantage compared with middle-class children. Another factor responsible for working-class under-achievement is the restricted speech code.
This is because if the parents lacks this they wouldn't be able to encourage and help their child with their studies in the same way others do. This affects working class children more because their parents tend to be less well-educated and reduces the child's chance of achieving high in life as they may become less developed than another family leading onto my next point involving Bernstein. However, you this is criticisms by the fact working class parents cannot help their child because they have to work long and tiresome hours to live a decent life. Therefore, you cannot blame all working class parents for having a lack of interest if they are working to pay bills. Another cultural factor that might affect educational chances was argued by Bernstein.
There are many reasons why working class children fail to reach the ‘top of the ladder’. This is can be down to material deprivation. Working class families do not have the money to buy material goods (ie: computers, educational toys, books), good quality food or to go on days out or holidays which will expand they cultural knowledge and give them a head start in life. Children generally live in smaller houses than their middle class peers and do not have their own space to concentrate on their school work. Parents of the lower class children quite often just do not have the time to spend with their children due to preoccupation of their own problems (money, housing etc) or working unsociable hours.
A less privileged family who does not have as good resources at home than a richer more privileged family, an example would be the Internet. Work set at home and completed at home does not promote the chance for all kids to show their skills. Thus the home environment is not a level playing field as it is at school. This is why homework should not be allowed. Second of all, while students are completing their homework they are getting stressed because these tasks are a large part of their grade.