Middle-class mothers are more likely to have more of an interest in their child’s intellectual development. Bernstein identified two forms of speech pattern, the restricted code and elaborated code. According to Bernstein, most middle-class children have been socialised into both the restricted code and the elaborated code, working-class pupils are placed at a distinct disadvantage. They are less likely to understand what teachers say and are more likely to be misunderstood and criticised for what they themselves say. Bernstein’s early work comes close with being a ‘cultural deficit’ model.
Many EMG children also do not have that initial push of how important education is for them. They may have a fatalistic view on where they see themselves fitting into to society which may rub on to their children. Sugarman did a lot of research on this and found it as being one of the top reasons why children can fail in education. Children who believe their future is already predetermined will not put as much focus on education as they think they will only get working-class jobs. As parents may be new to the UK or not speak English they may not understand the educational system and the application process.
Ethnic minorities are in there first generation of wealth and Marxist believe they primarily underachieve due to their class. Also they may not have the time and space at home to do school work. They may not have the funds for educational trips; and they
In a poor socioeconomic group, students are more likely to drop out of school; this happens since the environment around them does not allow them to achieve an academic goal or have parents who support them. The government should implement more programs to help in the contribution for poor families. With poverty, children can experience stress or depression, hence, not obtaining a career.
Also they will have a weaker immune system causing them to miss school due to illness. They also believe material deprivation causes them to have less school resources such as books and pens so they have fewer opportunities to learn. They have no access to private schools and tuition. Pupils in private schools or having private tuition are proven to receive higher grades than those in public schools. This was supported by the National Child Development Study which found that children from low income households were an average of 9 months behind in their education compared to others.
Cultural deprivation sociologists see three factors as accountable for working-class under-achievement. One such factor being the lack of intellectual stimulation. Working class families are less likely to give their children educational toys and activities that will stimulate their thinking and reasoning skills, and less likely to read them. This effects their intellectual development so that when they begin school they are at a disadvantage compared with middle-class children. Another factor responsible for working-class under-achievement is the restricted speech code.
Children with a lack of cultural capital are more likely to use the restricted code (limited vocabulary) which disadvantages them at school as they feel excluded and are therefore less successful. Working-class children typically use the restricted code. Bourdieu argues that cultural capital affects academic achievement as it ties in with educational capital. Middle-class children with cultural capital are better equipped to meet the demands of the school curriculum.
Sociology Essay Some theorists think that cultural deprivation is the reason why working class children fail and middle class children succeed. To succeed in education you will need cultural equipment (language, self-discipline and reasoning skills) something that the working class children lack. They lack this equipment because their parents cannot socialise properly with their children, so these children grow up culturally deprived leading to their under-achievement at school. Whereas middle class children have parents who can socialise properly with them, giving them all the cultural equipment they need. Intellectual development is one aspect to cultural deprivation.
1) Lack of intellectual stimulation – Books, educational toys, and the overuse of television. 2) Restricted speech code – Smaller vocabulary, and an inability to communicate. 3) Working Class Subculture – A parent who does less skilled work would have less qualifications, and would perhaps inadvertently undermine the importance of grades. To follow on directly from the 3rd factor, working-class pupils achieve less than middle-class pupils in education. Whereas children if higher professions are two to three times more likely to go to university.
This pessimistic view on the abilities of low socioeconomic income youth continues to influence their lack of academic performance. Children who are raised under harsh financial circumstances are deprived of the psychological and educational resources leaving them ill prepared and more likely to be unsuccessful adults in the future. Economics and race plays a factoring role in the quality of living conditions of many individuals. In the American society many people are struggling to make ends meet within their everyday lives. Many are living from paycheck to paycheck, essentially not always guaranteed the proper wages in order to meet all of their needs.