It is shown that the higher level of education the higher level of income. So with the basic stats of entry level education being less, the lack of opportunity based on income and the lack of support for minorities to receive the same educational realities as the white class it stands to reason that this a major component to the disparity in classes and race. In addition to the disparity in class and race there is a disparity to class and gender. Women are paid less than men. The majority of single parent families are supported by women.
These children are usually victims of low quality education and obstruct the income equality gap, as they grow older. Even though there are people who have earned a degree they still suffer from income inequality. In the Journal of Sociology and Social Welfare the author Raine Dozier states “black degree holders were able to keep pace in cumulative work experience, their wage trajectories flattened over their twenties, relative to both a previous cohort and young white degree holders.”(4) Is this fair to a person who may have the same degree but they are of a different race but still is a victim of this unbalanced economy? Do employers play a role in economic
Many lower class citizens are at or below the poverty line and are have and unavoidable disadvantages and poorer chances to discover life’s possibilities. Regardless of the potential and ambition that a lower class individual could possess, he or she will not be given opportunities to succeed like a higher class individual. People who are considered lower class do not have access to many of the resources like a wealthier societies do. Based on their economic situation, they automatically start behind the eight ball. Wealthier societies have exceptional educational services which include better teachers, utilities, and curriculum, whereas poorer societies just get by on the bare minimum.
There are many different governmental educational policies that have been enforced over the years that have affected social class differences in educational achievement. The ongoing trend is that people from lower class backgrounds tend to underachieve compared to those from middle/higher class backgrounds. An example is the increase in higher education fees up to £9,000 a year. This increase in fees excludes people from working class backgrounds to attend university as they can’t afford to. This means working class students are disadvantaged when looking for jobs as higher paid jobs usually require qualifications at degree level, which means they are forced to look for lowly paid, usually primary or secondary sector jobs.
Assess sociological explanations of ethnic differences in educational achievement Some sociologists argue that some ethnic groups maybe underachieving in the education system whereas some say that these ethnic groups differ in the education system. Material factors may affect ethnic groups in the education system, material deprivation explanations see educational failure as results from factors such as substandard housing and low income. Ethnic minorities are more likely to face these problems according to Flaherty as unemployment is three times higher for African and Bangladeshi/Pakistani people than for whites, Pakistanis are nearly twice as likely to be in unskilled or semi-skilled jobs compared to whites. Ethnic minorities are more likely to be engaged in shift work. These inequalities parallel those in educational achievement e.g.
Asian pupils were found to also be the victims of racism in school, especially girls as Wright found (1992), saying that teachers leave Asian children out of classroom discussions and speak to them in childish language, isolating them from the other children and making them feel uncomfortable in school. The main way which racism causes difference in educational achievement between social classes is through things like streaming and exclusions. Black children were more often excluded than white children found Jenny Bourne (1994), this means they spend less time in school and therefore achieve lower on their exams than other groups. Evaluating the impact of racism in schools however, leads to research into student responses. Mac an Ghaill (1992) found that black and Asian students at a sixth form college did not always accept the label given to them by racist teachers.
‘How do we account for low educational attainment among some ethnic minorities?’ Intro Functionalists believe the institution of education is harmonious, and aids a well-functioning society (Haralambos, et al., 2013, p. 665); but can this really be the case, when there is such a prominent gap in achievement children of ethnic minorities? Low educational attainment amongst some ethnic minorities is a fact; statistically Gypsy/Roma children are most likely to leave education with less than five GCSE’s, with Black Caribbean/African students also consistently performing more poorly than their white counterparts (Haralambos, et al., 2013, p. 714). The reason as to why this is the case is less clear. Many sociologists have offered explanations; culture capital, cultural deprivation, labelling of pupils, institutionalized racism and a curriculum which ignores their ethnicity. Or is it the pupils themselves who hold the answer?
It is easier to blame the person than it is to blame the society for their failure. Many societies provide inequality for its people, discriminating against minorities and failing to provide enough jobs and opportunities. Several people are trapped into institutional discrimination. Structural conditions of society can be blamed for poverty. Most jobs today, require a College degree.
Also, black housing was significantly worse than white housing – 40% of black housing was substandard whilst only 12% of white housing was. This shows how their treatment as second class citizens extended to every aspect of their lives. However, Christian churches helped provide education for black children in the
Regardless of the fact that parental support is of great importance for a students’ academic achievement, studies have shown that a greater part of a minorities parents have lacked support for their children in spite of faculty and staff motivation to do so. Karen Mason, president of the Association for Career and Technical Education communicated that numerous at-risk student’s lack parental support and often have a low academic self-concept; consequently, pushing students to often struggle in school. Also “A study conducted by researchers at Duke University in 2005 found that underrepresented minorities constitute 28.2 percent of the U.S. population; 12.5 percent of the entire applicant pool of 18 national schools; but minority legacy applicants only accounted for 6.7 percent of the applicant pool. The researchers concluded that legacies today reflect the domination of whites that have in their words, “monopolized” higher education throughout history. Legacy preferences fail to substantially increase racial and ethnic diversity in colleges and universities.” Declared John C. Britain a professor of law at the University of the District of Columbia School of Law.