Henry used Parliament to push through his changes. He became the head of the new Church of England. Why was Henry so desperate to have a male heir? TA S K S Put the title, ‘Henry’s break with Rome’. You need to create a diagram showing what Henry did.
This write up is an assessment of whether the reformation was a direct outcome of renaissance in Europe. However, this essay is of the view that the reformation was a direct outcome of renaissance. The Reformation could not have occurred without monumental crisis of the medieval church 1during the renaissance papacy. It was a period of darkness concerning the teachings of the Bible. Most of the teachings of the Roman Catholic Church were dogma that could not be challenged or refused by Christians of the middle ages.
Henry VIII is often remembered as the English monarch who broke with the Roman Church. However, Henry was only attracted to Protestant doctrine in a limited way, as the years 1530-1547 demonstrate. Between the years 1530-1534, Henry tried to secure the Pope's permission to divorce Catherine of Aragon, by threatening first the English clergy and then the Pope's powers in England. When the Pope still did not grant the divorce, Henry undertook the most extreme of measures, claiming jurisdiction over the English Church for himself. The Act of Royal Supremacy of 1534 stated that the Crown was reclaiming powers that it had always possessed; powers that Rome had usurped during the previous four hundred years - a fact which Henry and his advisors firmly believed.
Namely Cromwell and Cranmer played important roles, and overall I agree with the view that the decisive influence in shaping the reformation was Thomas Cromwell due to his closeness to the king and willingness to entirely devote his time and resources into the reformation. The feeling in Source 7 is that Cromwell played an important role in swaying the mind of the king against the clergy, and into reformation. In his ‘supplication against the ordinaries’ Cromwell attacks the clergy saying they make laws without Henry, some of which “clash with the laws off your kingdom”. Here Cromwell might be referring to the law of preamunire, which forbade the following of a foreign law over that of the kings. His influence over the king on this matter could then be shown to have an effect where in the early 1530’s Henry went on to charge all the Clergy with preamunire, and threatened a few with death.
Shehab Amin How important was Buckingham in the breakdown of relations 1625-29? Between the years 1625 and 1629 Charles’ favourite the Duke of Buckingham had a huge influence on English politics, the breakdown of relations between Crown and Parliament can be said to be because of how he used this power directly, for example the military failures at this time and relations with France, which he was directly behind. But as a separate point of conflict was religion, the rise of Armenianism. Other factors however such as tonnage & poundage, did cause problems with Charles but again without Buckingham these wouldn’t have been major points of conflict. In 1625 Buckingham decided England needed a new ally in Europe in France after the failure of the Spanish match, they could see diplomatic advantages, France was becoming worried about the successes of the Hapsburg Spanish and might be persuaded to take part against them.
How did Cromwell help to develop a Tudor state? Thomas Cromwell, the chief minister for Henry VIII from 1533 to 1540 was a ruthless politician, who some historians believe to have caused a ‘revolution in government.’ However, other historians believe that the developments of the Tudor state were not due to Cromwell’s farsighted planning, but other factors. To answer the question, we first must identify the components of the Tudor state, and how Cromwell influenced and changed these areas. Perhaps the foremost part of the Tudor State, the Government, underwent a significant change, mostly due to the Royal Supremacy over Church carried out by Cromwell. He was familiar with Lutheran and humanist ideals, and as a lawyer he had the capabilities to carry out his ideological reforms in Parliament.
He also posted his 95 thesis statement which launched a movement for religious reform. Before the reformation the church had a lot of power. The pope had the most power. The pope appointed bishops to rule the different countries of Europe. Many people went to the bishops as their masters, and took orders from the pope, and not the king.
He believed that the Catholic church was corrupt for selling indulgences as penance for sins in that the sale was a way for the Church to exploit the unfortunate and poor (Reformation 5). The final push for the need to change was the English reformation. During King Henry VIII’s rule in the sixteenth century, the Church of England was formed. He established the church because the Pope of the Catholic Church would not grant him a divorce from his wife, Catherine of Aragon. The Anglican church had many similarities to the Catholic church: similar rituals and a bible titled the Book of Common Prayere (Reformation 9).
The origins of rebellion arose when people in England opposed Mary’s catholic standing and were worrying over the possible return of papal authority over England, since mary’s coronation was in 1553 she quickly placed people of catholic standing in positions within the kingdom, including many positions in the privy council the most influential body within the government. This quick changeover within England is arguably what caused the Wyatt rebellion as it made the people feel anxious of the possible threat of going back to a papal authority, this can be reinforced by the following source ‘and yet thhe it be said in counsel as to my friend, we mind only the restitution of God’s word, but no words!’qhich was written by wyatts son showing us that Wyatt was rebelling to the threat Mary posed to religion, but it can also be inferred that although this was his motive he felt that this reason wasn’t acceptable to cause a greater enough rebellion to remove Mary from the throne so he says that they should use a different reason, as generally it can be argued that Mary’s catholic influence across England were relatively popular, possibly why the rebellion was shown little support. There
The next most important reason for the collapse was religion and Charles’ push toward Arminianism and absolutism. The fear of Charles becoming absolutist shaped how his policies were viewed and the MP’s political attitudes. Appello Ceasarum produced by Montagu and commissioned by the King angered many MPs as it argued the similarities between Protestantism and Catholicism. This brought MPs to call for the impeachment of Montagu as they felt it promoted anti-Calvinism. Charles’ reaction to this, as he imposed his prerogative as the Divine Right Monarch, promoted Montagu to Royal Chaplain.