Henry took the pope and held him as prisoner; the pope (whilst being imprisoned) did not negotiate with him. The pope would not allow Henry to divorce Catherine because it was against the religion of England to divorce. Henry wanted an annulment for his marriage, some evidence that shows that Henry was expecting the pope to grant him the annulment because he told Catherine his plan, agreed to marry Anne after the annulment, applied to the pope for an allowance to marry Anne. All these actions shows Henry had no problem gaining the cancellation. A new religion was created by Henry VIII, called Protestant.
This continued until Henry VIII, so desperate to produce a male heir, broke Papal control over England and named himself Head of the Church that taught an offshoot of Christianity based on the teachings of Martin Luther, the Protestant Church of England. This change did not make much difference, as the main different was the head of the Church and belief about divorce. Many more changes came after Henry died in 1547 and Edward VI became king. Edward, led by his advisors, moved England completely from Catholicism and to Protestantism. He passed laws such as making churches and bishops more plain, services be said in English and creating the Book of Common Prayer in 1549 and a refined version in 1552.
At the start of Henry VIIIs reign, most of England were Roman Catholic and accepted the Pope as the Head of the Church, but in the 16th century, and so was he until he split off the English Church from the Roman church When the Pope refused to grant Henry VIII a divorce from Catherine of Aragon. He then went on to make himself the spiritual head of the English church rather than the Pope. Henry VIII declared himself supreme head of a new Church of England. (The Act of Supremacy and reformation). The voices of statesmen and of priests extolled his wisdom and power as more than human.
The King’s supporters believed that it would be an offence against God to rebel against the King. Charles I’s belief in the divine right of kings meant that many who had opposed his attempts at changing the religious face of the church had felt loathed to take up arms against him as he held his powers from God. During the civil wars freedom of the press was introduced meaning that many religious groups could have their views expressed in print. In Unit 11, Anne Laurence writes about the press increasingly being used in connection with the increase in the divisions among parliamentary supporters and the “steady trickle of defections” from parliament to the king. Many of the defections took place during 1643, the year of parliament’s greatest military failure.
John Carroll faced the challenge to depict what democratic ideas could he incorporate into the Catholic Church. He pondered on the fact that many settlers migrated to the New World fleeing the oppression of an established church in Europe “and resolve not to duplicate that situation in the New World”(2). Settlers of America suspected that the Pope would make it difficult to American Catholics to stay loyal to this country and “to enjoy their full democratic rights”(2). Bishop Carroll concluded that he needed to persuade Americans that that was not the case. He went through great pains to prove that Catholics were in fact subject to Rome and that the Pope would only influence them in spiritual matters.
England was a Catholic country, and so Ireland followed in its footsteps and was also a devoted Catholic country. The Act of Supremacy meant that Henry was now the head of the church, a protestant movement. This caused uproar in Ireland since England was becoming a protestant country, and Henry expected Ireland to follow them. On the 11th June 1534, the 8th Earl of Kildare, also known as the vice-deputy of Ireland, renounced his alliance to Henry VIII due to these changes. Henry heard of this and summoned Garette Org Fitzgerald to London since he felt that the way in which Ireland was being run was against the new Henrician reformaties.
In England, Charles’s imposition of such means the “placing of altars”, mentioned in Source B, and the prominence of catholics at court also mentioned in B, created underlying discontent. Furthermore, Charles imposition of the beauty of Holiness and the abolishment of the fed fees impropriations in 1633 made puritans extremely fearful of the apparent catholic tendencies of charles. These changes did not create truly vocalised opposition for several years. The case of John Williams and his challenge to the altar policy and the early use of Prynne are evidence, I believe of how vocalised opposition to the religious reforms was of vital importance to the collapse of the Personal rule. The general build in opposition, e.g.
This war is like a proof of nation and states marked off. The conclusion from the war is Calvinist was accepted as choice for religion of the Holy Roman Empire. Befor the war, Europe was going through the reformation and counter reformation because different religion kept publicizing toward the Catholic Church. Protestant was the growing force that pulled the war together because Europe couldnt be united with only one religion. The acceptance of Calvanist proved Europe people could have religious independence and in politic, politic wouldn’t be fixed on any
With the king still a minor- and with the authority of Edward Seymour, Duke of Somerset as Lord Protector, the control of religious affairs had passed to Parliament. In being so religious change under Somerset from 1547-49 followed a more radical but moderate path of Protestantism. Guiding or can been seen as dominating Edwards reign for the first two and a half years, Somerset alongside Cranmer were intent on making England a truly Protestant state. The road to Protestantism had begun with the abolishment of the Act of Six Articles and the heresy laws, while the
In comparison, Fisher’s opposition was more vocal, he publicly condemned Henry getting an annulment from Catherine of Aragon, he was much more active in his opposition, delivering sermons and publishing books, an example of which being Sermon Against the Pernicious Doctrine of Martin Luther (1521). In April 1524, Fisher refused to take the oath on the act of succession, which was significant because it meant that they were choosing their Roman Catholic beliefs over Henry, which was treasonous. Historian Weir said, on fisher’s death, “there was widespread outrage at the buckering of such a