The short term memory stores approximately 7 +/-2 items in an acoustic code for approximately 15-30 seconds. It is therefore easy to forget things at this stage, as information will be lost within 30 seconds unless it is repeated or rehearsed. Memories from this store are lost because new information comes along and pushes the old information out. However if the information is sufficiently well rehearsed it will be able to pass into the long term memory. The long term memory stores unlimited amount of information for a lifetime through semantic encoding.
Multi-Store Model of Memory The multi-store model is the explanation for how memories are processed. It explains why only a few things are remembered and why some things are remembered and others aren’t. Atkinson and Schiffrin were the first to describe the multi-store model. They designed a simple diagram to show the multi-store memory: Sensory memory Environmental Stimuli Attention Short-term Memory Maintenance Rehearsal Information Retrieval Elaborate Rehearsal Long-term Memory Retrieval Sensory memory Environmental Stimuli Attention Short-term Memory Maintenance Rehearsal Information Retrieval Elaborate Rehearsal Long-term Memory Retrieval The Multi-store Model has 3 different places for memory storage. Information passes from store to store in a linear way and there are different explanations for forgetting in each store The first store is where sensory memory is processed.
Structure of the multi-store model According to the multi-store model of memory (Atkinson & Shiffrin, 1968) memory can be explained in terms of 3 stores (sensory store, short term store and long term store) and 2 processes (attention and rehearsal). Information first enters the sensory store (also known as sensory memory) directly from the senses. It remains in the sensory store for a maximum duration of around 2 seconds before it decays and is replaced with new information. If information in the sensory store is attended to then it can be passed to the short term store. Around 7 plus or minus 2 chunks of Information (Miller, 1956) can be stored in the short term store (also know as short term memory).
Glanzer and Cunitz (1966) came up with the theory of the “Serial Positioning experiment”. They gave participants in their experiment three lists of words to remember. It resulted in participants remembering the first list of words (known as Primacy effect), and the last list of words (known as Recency effect), completely forgetting the middle list. This experiment supports the idea of the Multi Store Model as it states that the LTM and the STM are unitary stores (they cannot subdivide into different components). Glanzer and Cunitz suggested that the first list of words
To what extent does the Multi Store Model offer a reasonable account of human memory? The Multi Store Model was designed by Atkinson and Shiffrin in 1968. The model proposes there are three different memory stores: sensory memory, short term memory and long term memory. Information from the environment is constantly received by the sensory memory store; most of it being irrelevant information. However if the information receives attention, it will pass on to short term memory.
12 marks The multi store model of memory was created by Atkinson and Shiffrin in 1968. Their findings showed that information first enters into the sensory memory which is very short lived. The sensory memory can be produced in two ways Iconic (visual) or Echoic (auditory). When the information has caught the attention of the brain it enters the short term memory which lasts for up to 20 seconds this was discovered in an experiment by Psychologist Peterson in 1959. In addition information in the short term memory store is encoded acoustically; this theory is supported by Conrad’s 1964 case study where an experiment was conducted that confirmed Atkinson and Shiffrin’s theory that the STM encodes information acoustically.
Outline and evaluate the multi-store model of memory. The multi-store model of memory was created by Atkinson and Shiffrin in 1968. It consisted of three stores: the sensory store, the short term store and the long term store. The sensory store is where stimuli from the external environment first register; it holds information for fractions of a second after the physical stimuli is no longer available. Atkinson and Shiffrin then proposed three separate sensory stores to accommodate different kinds of input: -Iconic store for visual input -Echoic store for auditory input -Haptic store for tactile input.
The multi store model (Atkinson and Shiffrin, 1968) is a classic model of memory. It is sometimes called the modal model or the dual process model. Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968) suggest that memory is made up of a series of stores (see below) The multi store model (Atkinson and Shiffrin 1968) describes memory in terms of information flowing through a system. Information is detected by the sense organs and enters the sensory memory. If attended to this information enters the short term memory.
Describe and evaluate 2 models of memory. The Multi-Store Model (MSM). The multi-store model which is also known as Atkinson-Shiffrin memory model which was first recognised in 1968. The model identifies three stores: Sensory memory, Short-Term memory and Long-Term memory and it explains how information is transferred between these stores. The information enters the sensory memory model which is stimulated by the sensory form which remains unaltered in the mind for a brief time before decaying.
Multi-store Model of Memory The Multi-Store Model of Memory is a study of memory and explains how the memory works. Atkinson and Shriffrin (1968) suggested that memory comprised of three separate memory stores, the Sensory memory (store), the Short Term Memory (STM) and the Long Term Memory (LTM). The Multi-Store Model also shows the processes by which the information is passed to each store. The model suggests that human memory involves a sequence of these three stages. Information passes through each stage/store by control processes.