The nature and structure of memory is often referred to two types of memory, Long term memory (LTM) and Short term memory (STM). Long term memory (LTM) is incoming information with the sense that is stored within our memory, and that we can recall when needed. It’s considered to be unlimited, however forgetting long term memory may occur as a result to decay, interference or retrieval failure. There is also more than one type of long term memory; semantic, episodic and procedural memory. Short term memory (STM) is considered as incoming information from the sense which we attend to for only a short period of time.
The findings of the experiment showed that the immediate recall group remembered the first and last words best and the delayed group remembered the words from the beginning of the list best. This suggests that both groups were able to remember words that were stored in the long term memory but words at the end of the list were still in the short term memory. There is considerable research evidence for the distinction between several types of memory-store: sensory memory, short term memory and long term memory. Duration is a big distinction between sensory memory, short term memory and long term memory. The duration for sensory memory can only hold information for a fraction of seconds, an experiment by
BODY PARAGRAPH #2 (Reason Two) A. Sub Thesis: 1. The second reason that you provided in your original Thesis B. Evidence 1. What information from either documents or sources is there to support your sub thesis 2. Use evidence from the documents or sources to provide two to three details about Reason #1 or your Sub Thesis a.
Outline and evaluate the multi-store model of memory. (12 marks) The multi store model of memory is the system that describes the process of memorising things and is an information processing system that we all have. The MSM is split into three sections they are: sensory, short term memory and long term memory. The researchers that came up with this idea were Atkinson and Shiffrin in 1968. They investigated the idea that memory wasn’t a single process but involved more than one stage.
Murdock (1962) Murdock presented participants with a list of words at a rate of about one per second. After he showed them the words, the participants were required to recall as many of the words as they could. Murdock found that the words did not have an equal chance of being recalled and that some words, especially those that appeared first and those that came up last in the list, were better recalled than those in the middle. He called this serial position effect. The superior recall of items at the start of the list is called the primary effect, whilst the superior recall of the items at the end of the list is called the recency effect.
Outline and Evaluate the Multi-Store of Memory The idea of a multi-store memory, was discovered by Atkinson and Shiffrin in 1968, and argues that memory can be divided into three separate structures; Sensory memory, Short-term memory and Long-term memory. Information is thought to enter the memory system through the Sensory memory, then passed on to the Short Term memory when attention is paid to it. If this information is thought about and rehearsed in the Short Term memory it is passed to the Long-Term Memory to help interpret information in Short Term Memory. The Sensory Memory, which is uses visual, auditory and tactile encoding, has a limited capacity however, and a brief duration, so for information to be useful, it has to be passed
Sarah Khan Psychology – Mr. Barr Friday 21st September 2012 Essay Question: Outline and Evaluate the Multi-Store Model of Memory Cognitive Psychologists Atkinson and Shiffrin first proposed the Multi-Store Model (MSM) in 1968. It was the first computer-based model of memory, consequently becoming very influential in the field of cognitive psychology. The MSM consists of three separate stores that are interlinked; it is presented in a linear fashion with the Sensory Store linking to the Short Term Memory (STM). Information is then passed back and forth between the STM and the Long term Memory (LTM). The first component in MMS is the Sensory Store (SS) where the ‘External Stimulus’ (information) is received.
Sensory memory is the memory stores of all the info that your senses take in, it is held long enough for us to pay attention to it, if wanted, and then initially process it before it transfers to the short term memory. It is able to deal with different information from the senses-images, tastes, sounds, smells and feelings. Its storage duration depends on the type of data it receives. The capacity is quite large but unless attention is paid to the data it disappears very quickly. Short term memory allows us to hold onto information long enough to use it.
The research suggests that capacity of short term memory could only be enlarged by grouping items together known as chunking. By chunking information, we are more likely able to remember it whether in single or combined forms which is why it’s known as the magical number seven plus or minus two. However, the experiment could also be criticised in the sense that there could have been experimenter bias and demand characteristics. It also isn’t ecologically valid since people don’t have to memorise random letter and numbers all the time. Nevertheless,
An example would be: I look up a part number and remember it long enough to order one. Many of your short term memories are forgotten, but if enough attention is given some of these memories can be taken to the next stage. Long term memory is the continuous storage of information. Freudian psychology, calls this the preconscious and unconscious. Most of the time you are not aware of what memories are being stored, but can be called upon at a later time.