Outline and evaluate research that supports the multi-store model. The multi-store model consists of three different types of memory store, sensory memory, short term memory and long term memory. Information enters the sensory memory and if attention is paid to the information it is passed on to short term memory, if it is not paid attention the information will be lost. Once in short term memory, information is either transferred into long term memory by rehearsal or is lost. The recency effect appears in serial recall tasks.
This means that information is encoded preferable to sound. The duration of short term memory is less than 30 seconds. If information is held for more than 30 seconds it will be put across to your long term memory. Research has shown it is around 18 seconds. Therefore, it is limited.
Outline and evaluate the multi-store model of memory (12 marks) Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968) developed the multi-store model of memory to describe how the whole memory is structured. Incoming information enters a sensory memory for a brief period of time. A tiny fraction of it is then transmitted to the short term memory where it can be held and influenced. A little of that information is then transferred to the long term memory for more permanent storage. Sensory memory is the memory stores of all the info that your senses take in, it is held long enough for us to pay attention to it, if wanted, and then initially process it before it transfers to the short term memory.
Short term memory (STM) is considered as incoming information from the sense which we attend to for only a short period of time. Only when we attend to the incoming sensory information and rehearse it does that information transfer from short term memory to long term memory. Short term memory is thought to be limited to 18-30 seconds, information that is not processed into long term memory is then lost through decay or displacement. The three main areas to memory are encoding, which is the way information is changed so it can be stored in memory. The information enters the brain via the senses including eyes and ears, it is then stored in various forms such as visual codes (pictures), acoustic form (sound based) or semantic form (how we attach meaning or experiences) Encoding
The short-term memory store has a very limited capacity, i.e. it can only hold, according to Miller (Miller’s magic number), a capacity of 7 +/- 2 bits of information. This information can then last up to 18 seconds, according to Peterson and Peterson (1959). Items in the short term memory store are usually held as sounds although other kinds of encoding are possible. If the material is sufficiently rehearsed, it is then passed on to the long-term memory.
Both these stores connect to the final store, the episodic buffer. This store integrates information from all the three stores and the long term memory. The information that is not needed is forgotten and the rest is stored in the long term memory. All the capacities of the stores in the working memory model are limited. One problem of the model relates to the concept of the central executive.
Information must be acoustic or visual for a person to be able to store it in there Short Term Memory (STM) you can also hold up to 7 chunks of information. In Long Term Memory (LTM), information can be held semantically with an unlimited capacity. Research has been done, and has found that the duration of long term memory in unlimited, compared to the 18 seconds, measured by Peterson Peterson (1959). Baddely (1966) tested the effects of acoustic and semantic similarity on short and long term memory. He gave participants two lists with similar or dissimilar acoustic and semantic words.
The research carried out allowed us to confirm that using the method of loci would improve and an individual’s recall. Introduction The Multi-Store Model (MSM) of Memory was proposed by Atkinson and Shiffrin in 1968 and claimed the memory system contained three structural components. Sensory memory (SM) stores information that is collected by our senses (sight, smell, hearing etc.). This information is received continually but the majority is ignored and only stored for a brief moment of time. At this point it is either disregarded or transferred to the short term memory (STM) store.
Sarah Khan Psychology – Mr. Barr Friday 21st September 2012 Essay Question: Outline and Evaluate the Multi-Store Model of Memory Cognitive Psychologists Atkinson and Shiffrin first proposed the Multi-Store Model (MSM) in 1968. It was the first computer-based model of memory, consequently becoming very influential in the field of cognitive psychology. The MSM consists of three separate stores that are interlinked; it is presented in a linear fashion with the Sensory Store linking to the Short Term Memory (STM). Information is then passed back and forth between the STM and the Long term Memory (LTM). The first component in MMS is the Sensory Store (SS) where the ‘External Stimulus’ (information) is received.
Short Term Memory (STM) and Long Term Memory (LTM): Aspects and Research | Encoding | Capacity | Duration | Short Term Memory (STM) | Acoustically encoded: sound area of brain is activated during processing. | Limited capacity of 7 ± 2 ‘chunks’ of information. | A limited duration measured in seconds and minutes: approximately 20 seconds. | Research | Conrad (1964) | Miller (1956) | Peterson and Peterson (1959) | Long Term Memory (LTM) | Semantically encoded: associated with meaning. | Unlimited capacity.