Outline and evaluate the multi-store model of memory. (12 marks) The multi store model of memory is the system that describes the process of memorising things and is an information processing system that we all have. The MSM is split into three sections they are: sensory, short term memory and long term memory. The researchers that came up with this idea were Atkinson and Shiffrin in 1968. They investigated the idea that memory wasn’t a single process but involved more than one stage.
Atkinson and Shriffin first introduced the multi-store model, in 1968. They proposed that the memory had three main stores, the sensory store; which is made up of several stores, the eyes, nose, ears, fingers and tongue etc. The store memory store, which will hold information for a short period of 18 seconds, this is because the information is in a fragile state and un-rehearsed. Finally the long-term memory store, this is where any information that has been elaborately rehearsed is stored, this store had unlimited duration and capacity. The Sperling study in 1960 supports the theory of the multi-store model and the main store that it supports is the sensory memory store.
The nature and structure of memory is often referred to two types of memory, Long term memory (LTM) and Short term memory (STM). Long term memory (LTM) is incoming information with the sense that is stored within our memory, and that we can recall when needed. It’s considered to be unlimited, however forgetting long term memory may occur as a result to decay, interference or retrieval failure. There is also more than one type of long term memory; semantic, episodic and procedural memory. Short term memory (STM) is considered as incoming information from the sense which we attend to for only a short period of time.
Outline and Evaluate the MSM of memory. MSM stands for the multi-store model and was the first model which tried to outline how the brain and memory worked. Atkinson and Shiffrin designed this in 1968 and it shows the sensory memory, the short term memory and the long term memory. At each stage decay could occur and between the sensory memory and short term memory attention was needed for it to be stored in short term memory. From short term memory to long term memory rehearsal was needed otherwise it would not be entered.
Describe and evaluate the working model of memory The working model of memory consists of many components, these are the central executive, the phonological loop- which also involves the articulatory control system and the phonological store, the visuospatial sketchpad and the episodic buffer. The central executive is considered the most important part of working memory, because it controls attention and coordinates the actions of the other components, it can briefly store information, but has a limited capacity. The central executive can store information from any kind of code. The phonological loop consists of two parts, the articulatory control system and the phonological store, The articulatory control system rehearses information verbally and has a capacity of about 2 seconds. It is the system that you use to mentally rehearse information by repeating it over and over again, it is also known as the ‘inner voice’.
Outline and evaluate the multi-store model of memory (12 marks) Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968) developed the multi-store model of memory to describe how the whole memory is structured. Incoming information enters a sensory memory for a brief period of time. A tiny fraction of it is then transmitted to the short term memory where it can be held and influenced. A little of that information is then transferred to the long term memory for more permanent storage. Sensory memory is the memory stores of all the info that your senses take in, it is held long enough for us to pay attention to it, if wanted, and then initially process it before it transfers to the short term memory.
However, Adam’s theory was based on closed loop control and Schmidt’s theory was based on open loop control. In Adam’s theory, recognition is defined as a perpetual trace that controls the response updates during the response. The second part of Adam’s theory is recall which he refers to as memory trace. It is necessary to have memory trace to initiate the response produced feedback. • In Schmidt’s theory, recall is simply referred to as a recall schema which initiates the response and carries it out.
Short Term Memory (STM) and Long Term Memory (LTM): Aspects and Research | Encoding | Capacity | Duration | Short Term Memory (STM) | Acoustically encoded: sound area of brain is activated during processing. | Limited capacity of 7 ± 2 ‘chunks’ of information. | A limited duration measured in seconds and minutes: approximately 20 seconds. | Research | Conrad (1964) | Miller (1956) | Peterson and Peterson (1959) | Long Term Memory (LTM) | Semantically encoded: associated with meaning. | Unlimited capacity.
Sarah Khan Psychology – Mr. Barr Friday 21st September 2012 Essay Question: Outline and Evaluate the Multi-Store Model of Memory Cognitive Psychologists Atkinson and Shiffrin first proposed the Multi-Store Model (MSM) in 1968. It was the first computer-based model of memory, consequently becoming very influential in the field of cognitive psychology. The MSM consists of three separate stores that are interlinked; it is presented in a linear fashion with the Sensory Store linking to the Short Term Memory (STM). Information is then passed back and forth between the STM and the Long term Memory (LTM). The first component in MMS is the Sensory Store (SS) where the ‘External Stimulus’ (information) is received.
The phonological loop has two parts: the articulatory control system or the inner voice, and the phonological store or the inner ear. The Articulatory control system rehearses information verbally with a time-based capacity of 2 seconds. The phonological store uses a sound based code to store information, even though this information decays after approximately 2 seconds (unless rehearsed through the articulatory control system). It receives its input directly from the ears or from your long-term memory. The visuospatial sketchpad manipulates information that we see and stores it from the eyes or long term memory.