Outline and evaluate the multi-store model of memory. (12 marks) The multi store model of memory is the system that describes the process of memorising things and is an information processing system that we all have. The MSM is split into three sections they are: sensory, short term memory and long term memory. The researchers that came up with this idea were Atkinson and Shiffrin in 1968. They investigated the idea that memory wasn’t a single process but involved more than one stage.
The nature and structure of memory is often referred to two types of memory, Long term memory (LTM) and Short term memory (STM). Long term memory (LTM) is incoming information with the sense that is stored within our memory, and that we can recall when needed. It’s considered to be unlimited, however forgetting long term memory may occur as a result to decay, interference or retrieval failure. There is also more than one type of long term memory; semantic, episodic and procedural memory. Short term memory (STM) is considered as incoming information from the sense which we attend to for only a short period of time.
Outline and evaluate the multi-store model of memory (12 marks) Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968) developed the multi-store model of memory to describe how the whole memory is structured. Incoming information enters a sensory memory for a brief period of time. A tiny fraction of it is then transmitted to the short term memory where it can be held and influenced. A little of that information is then transferred to the long term memory for more permanent storage. Sensory memory is the memory stores of all the info that your senses take in, it is held long enough for us to pay attention to it, if wanted, and then initially process it before it transfers to the short term memory.
Information must be acoustic or visual for a person to be able to store it in there Short Term Memory (STM) you can also hold up to 7 chunks of information. In Long Term Memory (LTM), information can be held semantically with an unlimited capacity. Research has been done, and has found that the duration of long term memory in unlimited, compared to the 18 seconds, measured by Peterson Peterson (1959). Baddely (1966) tested the effects of acoustic and semantic similarity on short and long term memory. He gave participants two lists with similar or dissimilar acoustic and semantic words.
An Essay on “The Piano Lesson” \ The triumph of humanity can come in many forms. There are fears that every person faces in their lifetime that can hinder them from overcoming life’s obstacles. In the play, “The Piano Lesson”, by August Wilson, there were many fears and conflicts to overcome, but the strength of their family’s history enabled them to embrace the future. What the reader can gain from this play is the prominent sense of loyalty, ambition, and triumph over adversity. The character had possession of an old piano that had the carvings of their parents who were in slavery.
Music is beneficial in many ways; Goldsworthy seeks to demonstrate his ability as to join together individuals and their past. Music is displayed as negatively and positively, symbolically used. The piano is evident many times throughout the novella in order to display the physical benefits of the musical instrument. While music is used metaphorically in order to portray messages from an experienced Keller to a naive Paul. Music enables the past of Keller to be explored while providing a future for a
“And he took and carved this […] See that right there? That’s my grandmother, Berniece. She looked just like that.” Berniece and Boy Willie’s great grandfather carved pictures into the piano that was passed down in the family, when his master Robert Sutter ordered him to. It was also a way for him to be with his wife and child who had been traded for the piano. In a way, it reunited the family.
The superior recall of items at the start of the list is called the primary effect, whilst the superior recall of the items at the end of the list is called the recency effect. This is good evidence for the multi-store model of memory because it shows the difference between the STM and the LTM. Rundus & Atkinson (1970) Rundus and Atkinson asked participants to rehearse out loud the list they were given (similar to Murdock's experiment). Tape recordings showed that words from the beginning of the list were more likely to be rehearsed than later ones. Because of the limited capacity of the STM, words from the middle of the list are thought to be lost completely or unavailable for recall.
An example would be: I look up a part number and remember it long enough to order one. Many of your short term memories are forgotten, but if enough attention is given some of these memories can be taken to the next stage. Long term memory is the continuous storage of information. Freudian psychology, calls this the preconscious and unconscious. Most of the time you are not aware of what memories are being stored, but can be called upon at a later time.
Outline and Evaluate the Multi-Store of Memory The idea of a multi-store memory, was discovered by Atkinson and Shiffrin in 1968, and argues that memory can be divided into three separate structures; Sensory memory, Short-term memory and Long-term memory. Information is thought to enter the memory system through the Sensory memory, then passed on to the Short Term memory when attention is paid to it. If this information is thought about and rehearsed in the Short Term memory it is passed to the Long-Term Memory to help interpret information in Short Term Memory. The Sensory Memory, which is uses visual, auditory and tactile encoding, has a limited capacity however, and a brief duration, so for information to be useful, it has to be passed