Deeper processing led to improved recognition, which supports the levels of processing theory of memory. To evaluate, a weakness of this study is that it lack generalisability. The study consisted of only 24 participants. This small sample is not representative of the target population as the results could have been due to
In this he analysed research across many studies and concluded that immediate memory span is 7 therefore people can remember on average 7 musical notes/ words/ letters etc. and can also count up to 7 dots when they flash up on a screen but not much more than that. He also found that we can cope better when using the chunking method. The good thing about millers thoughts on chunking is that they were partially correct however, Cowan recently reviewed a variety of studies on capacity of short term memory and found that it is limited to about 4 chunks this suggest that the extent of knowledge that can be held in the short term memory isn’t
Sperling then produced an experimental condition where participants were asked to recall specific rows by presenting a tone of high/medium/low pitch that represented the top, middle, or bottom row, to which the participants had to recall just the letters in a particular row. This does not only Lack ecological validity due to it being in a highly controlled laboratory but it also creates a fatigue/practice effect as participants may possibly remember few letters in the experimental condition from the previous experiment or changing conditions could tire them out. However He found that participants, on average could recall 9-10 items of a possible 12. Short term memory has a relatively short duration and small capacity. The encoding that takes place here is mainly through eyes and ears.
Alyce Archer 12D2 Outline and evaluate the multi store model of memory (12) Atkinson and Shiffrins (1968) multi store model of memory is a diagram explaining how the information flows in a linear process from one storage unit to another in a structural process. The model is made up of three unitary stores: Sensory memory, which takes in the enviromental stimuli (touch, smell, sound, sight and taste). This information can decay in as little as 2 seconds if it is not attended to. However if you do pay attention to it it will flow through to the Short term memory, where 5-9 items can be stored at one time, the duration of this is 18 seconds then it will decay or be displaced by new infromation, unless rehearsal takes place. There are two types of rehearsal: Maintance rehearsal and Elaborate Rehearsal.
Draw and complete table to distinguish between long-term memory and short-term memory. [pic] (b) Using the multi-store model of memory, outline how information is transferred from short-term memory to long-term memory. (2 marks) 6. Explain one strength of the multi-store model of memory. (3 marks) 7.
The central executive controls attention and draws on the other two systems known as the ‘slave systems’. The central executive has a limited capacity; it cannot attend to too many things at once. This is supported by the dual task technique in 1976 where participants were given two tasks to do simultaneously. The first task used the central executive which was a simple sentence verification task e.g. participants were asked to answer true or false when shown the sentence B is followed by A.
Outline and evaluate the working memory model (12) Baddely and Hitch considered that the STM store in the Multi-store Model was too bland and simplified; they believed that STM was not a passive store, but several active processes that manipulate information. Baddely and Hitch also suggested that if a task involved different parts of the wrking memory system then 2 tasks could be undertaken simultaneously; eg, processing vision and sound. There is evidence to show that there is more than one component in STM and this has been provided by Baddeley and Hitch. They divised the dual task technique. They asked participants to perform a reasoning task while simultaneously reciting outloud a list of six digits.
Outline and evaluate the Multi-Store Model of memory (12 marks) The Multi-Store Model is constructed of three kinds of memory, sensory, short term and long term. Sensory information enters the sensory memory, encoded through the 5 senses depending on the type of information. The sensory memory's capacity is limited and the duration of which information can be held there is immediate. If information is paid attention to it will enter short term memory (STM). The STM has a capacity of 7+/- 2 pieces of information.
The main problem is that in most cases family members share the same environment so it can be argued that it was the environment that caused them to equally learn the behaviour instead of the genetic relationship. Twin studies offer more reliable data but unfortunately not many twin studies have been conducted. Also the lack in empirical research indicates that there is very little support for the genetic influence in anxiety disorders. Another explanation for phobias is the neurological explanation which is based on the functioning of the autonomic nervous system. Research has shown that people who develop phobias are those who generally maintain a high level of physiological arousal which makes them sensitive to the external environment.
This supports the MSM model as it shows that the capacity of the long term memory is unlimited. However Brown and Kulik refute the MSM as they argue that the flash bulb memory remembers emotional events such as the 9/11 bombing without rehearsal. The MSM model argues that information must be rehearsed in order to go into the long term memory. Moreover Craik and Tulving 1975 gave participants a list of words to remember and found out that if the words are semantic to the participant they were more