Describe and evaluate 2 models of memory. The Multi-Store Model (MSM). The multi-store model which is also known as Atkinson-Shiffrin memory model which was first recognised in 1968. The model identifies three stores: Sensory memory, Short-Term memory and Long-Term memory and it explains how information is transferred between these stores. The information enters the sensory memory model which is stimulated by the sensory form which remains unaltered in the mind for a brief time before decaying.
In addition information in the short term memory store is encoded acoustically; this theory is supported by Conrad’s 1964 case study where an experiment was conducted that confirmed Atkinson and Shiffrin’s theory that the STM encodes information acoustically. Their findings showed after rehearsal the info is transferred from the STM to Long term memory store if not rehearsed information is lost through decay. When in the LTM, the material can last for up to a lifetime when rehearsed or is of semantic value. LTM encodes information that is semantic. There are many strong points to consider in terms of the multi store model of memory.
Discuss the value of the Multi Store Model of memory (12 marks) The MSM of memory consists of four main components: the Attention System (Sensory Store), the Short Term Store (often known as the working memory), the Rehearsal Loop and the Long Term Store. The Attention System filters incoming information. If this information is paid attention to, it gets transferred into the Short Term Store. However, if the information is not acknowledged it is lost/decays. The Rehearsal Loop allows the rehearsal of information resulting in it being transferred into either the Long Term Store, or due to maintenance rehearsal, the information will be able to stay stored in the Short Term Store.
KF showed very poor digit span (usually less than 2 items), but good performance on tasks that seemed to indicate an intact long-term store. For example, he was still able to store new information. In fact he could learn a 10 word sequence in fewer trials than normal controls and still retained seven of the 10 items some months later. The multi-store model predicts that this should not be possible since an intact STM is required to transfer information to LTM. We have enormous amounts of information in LTM even though we have probably not rehearsed much of it.
With reference to relevant research discuss the extent to which models of memory and theories of forgetting explain human memory. This essay will analyse the effectiveness of the multi-store model of memory and the working memory model together with examination of Trace Decay and Displacement theories of forgetting, as effective methods for explaining human memory. Memory can be defined as the minds storage system for information or experience (Gross 1996). The multi-store model of memory developed by Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968/1971 as cited in Gross, 1996; Cardwell, Clark and Meldrum, 2004) is a linier diagram with three stores; the sensory store, short-term memory (STM) and long-term memory (LTM) stores. Entailing of information flowing in a fixed sequence from one to the next.
Participants were then asked to name the ink color and their response times for each list were measured in seconds. The results showed that the stroop effect interference extended to color-related words, providing further evidence for the interference and costs of the automatic processes of attention.8/8 Introduction Although we are able to sense a huge amount of information, not all of it is processed. Through a process of selection known as attention, only some pieces of information are selected for further processing by cognitive resources. The reason why we need to reduce incoming information may be due to a limited capacity to process information. Kahneman (as cited in Edgar, 2007) explains it in the limited capacity theory of attention.
Outline and evaluate the multi-store model of memory. The multi-store model of memory was created by Atkinson and Shiffrin in 1968. It consisted of three stores: the sensory store, the short term store and the long term store. The sensory store is where stimuli from the external environment first register; it holds information for fractions of a second after the physical stimuli is no longer available. Atkinson and Shiffrin then proposed three separate sensory stores to accommodate different kinds of input: -Iconic store for visual input -Echoic store for auditory input -Haptic store for tactile input.
Multi-store Model of Memory The Multi-Store Model of Memory is a study of memory and explains how the memory works. Atkinson and Shriffrin (1968) suggested that memory comprised of three separate memory stores, the Sensory memory (store), the Short Term Memory (STM) and the Long Term Memory (LTM). The Multi-Store Model also shows the processes by which the information is passed to each store. The model suggests that human memory involves a sequence of these three stages. Information passes through each stage/store by control processes.
Peterson and Peterson investigated the duration of the Short Term Memory in 1959. This demonstrated that rehearsing is vital to retain information in the Short Term Memory. A lab experiment was conducted in which 24 participants had to recall trigrams (meaningless three-consonant syllables, e.g. TGH). To prevent the participants rehearsing the trigrams they were asked to count backwards in threes from a specified random number until they saw a red light appear.
Its input is from eyes or the LTM. The phonological loop consists of two sub- systems; the phonological store, “the inner ear”, which allows acoustically coded information to be stored for a brief period of time (about two seconds), and the articulatory control system, “the inner voice”, which helps maintain information by sub-vocal information. The phonological loop also has a limited capacity. In 2000, Baddeley introduced a new component to the WMM: the episodic buffer. Its purpose is to organize the information received from the other components with information about time and order.