Outline and evaluate the multi-store model of memory. (12 marks) The multi store model of memory is the system that describes the process of memorising things and is an information processing system that we all have. The MSM is split into three sections they are: sensory, short term memory and long term memory. The researchers that came up with this idea were Atkinson and Shiffrin in 1968. They investigated the idea that memory wasn’t a single process but involved more than one stage.
Sensory memory is the memory stores of all the info that your senses take in, it is held long enough for us to pay attention to it, if wanted, and then initially process it before it transfers to the short term memory. It is able to deal with different information from the senses-images, tastes, sounds, smells and feelings. Its storage duration depends on the type of data it receives. The capacity is quite large but unless attention is paid to the data it disappears very quickly. Short term memory allows us to hold onto information long enough to use it.
PRG 211 WEEK 3 Supporting Activities Software Program Control Flow * What is sequential flow of a program? * What is branching within a program? * How is branching controlled? * What is the role of an IF statement in control structures? Sequential flow of a program refers to the order in which the individual statements, instructions, or function calls of an imperative or a declarative program are executed or evaluated.
Describe and Evaluate the WMM The working memory model, a theory created by Baddeley & Hitch, suggests that there are four separate stores in the store term memory. These are called the central executive, phonological loop, visuo spatial sketchpad and episodic buffer. The central executive is the delegator, problem solver and decision maker. This separates into two slave systems- the loop and sketchpad. The phonological loop deals with auditory information and preserves the order of information.
In short term memory, there is a limited capacity of much information can be held. Long term memory has an unlimited capacity however; the average capacity of short term memory is 7 items at a time. In 1956, Miller proposed that we could hold about 7 items in our short term memory but there is also a range of capacity of five to nine items which is why his article is known as ‘The Magical Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two’. Miller conducted an experiment in which participants were given ‘sentences; varying in lengths. They were asked to recall words in the correct order given in the sentence.
Three stages of memory The three stages of memory consist of sensory memory, short term memory, and long term memory. Each stage has specific functions in how its stores memory, for how long, and when that memory is called upon. Sensory memory lasts about 1 - 2 seconds and is the immediate perception of stimuli in the environment. You can either dismiss that perception, or transfer it to short-term memory or perhaps long-term memory. Sensory memory is often divided into iconic (visual input) and echoic (sound) memory.
Short term memory (STM) is considered as incoming information from the sense which we attend to for only a short period of time. Only when we attend to the incoming sensory information and rehearse it does that information transfer from short term memory to long term memory. Short term memory is thought to be limited to 18-30 seconds, information that is not processed into long term memory is then lost through decay or displacement. The three main areas to memory are encoding, which is the way information is changed so it can be stored in memory. The information enters the brain via the senses including eyes and ears, it is then stored in various forms such as visual codes (pictures), acoustic form (sound based) or semantic form (how we attach meaning or experiences) Encoding
Outline and evaluate the working memory model. (12marks) Baddley and Hitch argued that unlike the multi-store model that has only one store for short term memory (stm), the stm actually consists of several complex and active components that all work together. In the stm, information is transferred and temporarily held before being combined with our long term memory (ltm). These different components all work together however, still store different types of information separately. For example, our verbal information will be stored in one component, while our visual information will be stored in another.
(25 points) • The main paradigms used to study motor learning are response variability and random vs. block practice. Response variability and random vs. block practice are techniques of motor learning that incorporate variations. 3. Describe the different ways in which one can manipulate KR for memory development and provide possible explanations. (25 points) 4.
Outline and Evaluate the Multi-Store of Memory The idea of a multi-store memory, was discovered by Atkinson and Shiffrin in 1968, and argues that memory can be divided into three separate structures; Sensory memory, Short-term memory and Long-term memory. Information is thought to enter the memory system through the Sensory memory, then passed on to the Short Term memory when attention is paid to it. If this information is thought about and rehearsed in the Short Term memory it is passed to the Long-Term Memory to help interpret information in Short Term Memory. The Sensory Memory, which is uses visual, auditory and tactile encoding, has a limited capacity however, and a brief duration, so for information to be useful, it has to be passed