• a nitrogenous base. There are five different bases (you don't need to know their structures). The bases are usually known by there first letters only, you don't need to learn the full names. The base thymine is found in DNA only and the base uracil is found in RNA only. The Bases: Adenine (A), Thymine (T), Cytosine (C), Guanine (G) and Uracil (U) Nucleotide Polymerisation: Nucleotides polymerise by forming bonds between the carbon of the sugar and an oxygen atom of the phosphate.
c. The anticodon on the tRNA molecule that is complementary to the mRNA codon described above. d. The amino acid that would be carried by the tRNA molecule described above. In Henry's other CYP2C9 gene, the 430th nucleotide has been changed from a cytosine (C) to a thymine (T). This mutation converts a CGT triplet code in the coding strand of the DNA molecule to TGT. Beginning with this triplet code on the DNA, describe the effect that this change would have on the following: a.
When several monosaccharides are bonded together a polysaccharide, or complex sugar, is created. Polysaccharides are the polymers of carbohydrates. Proteins are made up of monomers called amino acids. There are twenty amino acids and they can be strung together in unique combinations known as polypeptide chains, the polymer unit for proteins. A protein is only complete and functional when the polypeptide chain is folded into a unique 3-D shape, a concept discussed in your textbook.
DNA Replication Carol Rowe WGU Biochemistry GRT1 Margie Hayes May 26, 2014 DNA DNA is made up of a sugar, a phosphate, with either a purine or a pyrimidine base, also called nucleotide subunits. Adenine and guanine are purines. Thymine and cytosine are pyrimidines. As you will see in the diagram, adenine bonds only with thymine and guanine bonds only with cytosine, they are connected by hydrogen bonding. Replication Fork In the DNA double helix Topolisomerase relieves the tension.
In organic chemistry, the carbon directly attached to a carboxyl group is the alpha (α) position, so the amino acids in proteins are all alpha-amino acids. The side chains that distinguish one amino acid from another are attached to the alpha carbon, so the structures are often written as shown in Figure 1 , where R stands for one of the 20 side chains The side chains of amino acids give them their different chemical properties and allow proteins to have so many different structures. Each α-amino acid consists of a backbone part that is present in all the amino acid types, and a side chain that is unique to each type of residue. An exception from this rule is proline. Because the carbon atom is bound to four different groups it is chiral, however only one of the isomers occurs in biological proteins.
The process begins with a sequence of nucleotides. There are four nucleotides in DNA- adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine abbreviated A, G, C, and T, respectively. The structure of DNA is a double helix- a winding staircase structure where the rungs of the staircase are made up of the nucleotides; the railing, or backbone, is made up of sugar- in the case of DNA, the backbone is made up of the sugar, deoxyribose. The nucleotides pair up as complementary pairs to make up the “rungs”- A always pairs with T, C always pairs with G; this is called the Law of Complementary Base Pairs. The complementary pairs are held together by hydrogen bonds- weak bonds that can be broken and reformed to allow the double-strand to be separated and read (transcribed).
The nucleic acid, DNA has an individual structure that act as an information storage molecule that provides instuction for assembling proteins. DNA’s primary structure involves nucleotide sequences that are monomer repeats which form polynucleotide chains. The Primary structure of DNA begins with one of the two different 5 -carbon sugar components either known as 2-deoxyribose. The particular sugar can then either be linked to a hetrocyclic base by an N – Glycosidic bond. The hetrocyclic bases are derived from two different structures which inculde Purine and Pyrimidine.
The outer layer acts much like the endoplasmic reticulum; it also has ribosomes attached to it. The inner layer has proteins that can only be found in the nucleus. The inner and outer layers are connected by the complex nuclear pores. Under the inner layer is the nuclear lamina this is made of proteins and helps support the structure of the nucleus. These proteins are related to those in the cytoskeleton.
The two nucleotide strands that make up DNA run in opposite directions, one runs from 3’ to 5’ and the other runs from 5’ to 3’. The 5’ end is where the phosphate is positioned and 3’ is where the deoxyribose sugars are. The organic bases (base pairings) are split up into two groups; pyrimidines and purines. The pyrimidines are made of a single six-sided ring and in terms of DNA the bases that apply to this group are cytosine and thymine. Purines however are made of a six-sided ring joined to a five-sided ring.
The nucleotide sequence on the template strand of the gene. ACA b. The mRNA codon that results after this triplet code is transcribed. UCU c. The anticodon on the tRNA molecule that is complementary to the mRNA codon described above. AGA d. The amino acid that would be carried by the tRNA molecule described above.