DNA, Genotype and Phenotype

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Associate Program Material DNA Worksheet Answer the following in at least 100 words: Describe the structure of DNA DNA structure consists of a polymer that is made up of subunits called nucleotides. DNA looks like a spiral staircase this is a double helix. Each spiral strand is created from sugar phosphate and any attached bases, when the strands line up and connect the bases also match up. DNA consists of many different nucleobases named adenine, thymine, guanine and cytosine. Only two of these will connect those two are adenine and thymine the other two guanine and cytosine won’t How does an organism’s genotype determine its phenotype? A organism’s genotype is its genetic makeup it is the sequence of nucleotide bases in its DNA. The phenotype is the organism’s physical traits and it arises from the actions of a wide variety of proteins. Structural proteins help make up the body of an organism, while enzymes catalyze its metabolic activities. DNA specifies the synthesis of proteins, However, a gene does not build a protein directly, instead it dispatches instructions in the form of RNA, which then programs protein synthesis. This molecular chain of command is from DNA in the nucleus then to RNA then to protein synthesis in the cytoplasm. The two main stages are transcription and translation, transcription is the transfer of genetic information from DNA into an RNA molecule, translation is the transfer of the information from RNA into a protein. Describe each stage of the flow of information starting with DNA and ending with a trait. Information will always start with DNA then it will travel to the RNA and then the protein. This information flow will also be followed through the cell as it travels from the DNA in the nucleus, and the Cytoplasm, then to the Ribosomes and the Endoplasmic Reticulum, and finally to the Golgi

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