Literature Review: Spinal Cord Injury

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CHAPTER TWO LITERITURE RIVIEW 2.1.1 SPINAL CORD INJURY Spinal cord injury is a low incidence and high cost disabilities that require individuals to make extraordinary changes in their lifestyles. SCI is associated with permanent physical disabilities and eventually decreased in life expectancy among this population. Besides this injury cause burden to the patients as well as their family in term of socioeconomic, psychological and physical burden (Ibrahim et al., 2013). Spinal cord injury can cause a partial and total loss of voluntary motor function and sensation at or below the injured site (Dubras, 2001). DiPiro (2015) defines spinal cord injury (SCI) results in chronic sensory and motor deficits below the level of injury and related to…show more content…
Rimmer, Rubin, Braddock, (2000), stated that exercise not only will enhance quality of life among this population, but it also will decline the health care expenditure. DiPiro (2015), concluded that SCI patients that engage in physical activity and exercise will get their benefits included enhance physical function, improve self esteem, prolonged life expectancy and improve quality of life. Improvement in functional capacity, mineral bone density, endurance and muscle strength, pain and reduce stress (Scelza, Kalpakjian, Zemper, & Tate, 2005). This opinion is consistent with Roberton, Bucks, Skinner, Allison, & Dunlop (2011) claims that physical activity contributes to improve in physical capacity among this population. Regular physical activity following SCI will decline the risk of cardiovascular events, type 2 diabetes, increase muscle strength in preserve muscle, improves cardiovascular endurance as well as pulmonary function, (Roberton, Bucks, Skinner, Allison, & Dunlop, 2011). Gorgey As. (2014), reported physical activities and exercise as well as rehabilitation strategies will reduce level of physical inactivity or sedentary lifestyle and eventually increase lifespan among this population. 30 to 60 minutes for twice a week aerobic exercise or strengthening exercise is necessary to achieve desirable cardiovascular and improvement in muscular fitness. In addition, inclination in glucose or lipid profile is the result that SCI patients can get from participate in upper extremity training. In short, physical activity give numerous benefits to SCI patients includes improves strength and cardiovascular fitness, improves blood circulation, decline the risk of

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