During wars, armies use the opposing sides’ disadvantages to work in their favor. The War for Independence was no different. England held the advantage of having the most dominant Navy in the world. Their naval power was incredibly overwhelming, especially to the colonists whose navy was nonexistent. Not only were the English more capable of winning a sea battle due to their superior Navy, they had the upper hand on land also.
Despite many periods of financial and military crisis where the empire faced threats from all sides, it always managed to come through, often due to the Emperor’s advisors. One of the talented generals during Justinian’s reign was Belisarius. The general was with Justinian for much of his reign and had many victories against larger enemies. The reconquest of North Africa and Italy helped solidify Justinian’s legacy as a great ruler. Having these two areas under its control meant that the Mediterranean was once again a Roman sea, and the trade that was now available to the empire would greatly increase its revenue.
This was a result from their successes in the Persian wars, in particular the battle of Salamis. Increasing naval power, as a result of the Athenian fleet established by Themistocles in 483BC, meant that Athens became ‘the epicenter of military and culture in Greece’- Kaysoukic. The population grew to 400 000 and it became the centre of trade after the wars. This increasing status in Greece contributed to their expansion of the delian league to the Athenian empire. The campaigns in Persia by Athenian leader Kimon not only consolidated Greek power but allowed for Athens to have increased trade routes.
Evaluate the significance of the Gallic Wars in the Career of Julius Caesar Julius Caesar’s involvement in the Gallic Wars was a vital factor in his successful career, it had a major impact on both his military and political status. Caesar’s involvement in the Gallic wars was a daring and ambitious move, as per his financial circumstances at the time. However, it was a necessary decision if he were “to make a career at all” [Plutarch]. The Gallic Wars was an opportunity Caesar utilized to obtain a proconsular command that would propel his rise to power and status. The military strength and wealth he gained through his conquests in Gaul would pave his way to a successful career.
Following the Battle of Marathon in 490 BC, Greece underwent great development in an attempt to become a stronger power and eliminate Persian threat. Themistocles was a key factor in contributing to these developments, as he was leader of the Athenians after the Battle of Marathon. According to Herodotus, ‘Themistocles believed that Athens future lay on the sea as a trading power.’ Therefore, the contributions of Themistocles were largely relevant to the growth of Athens as a sea power, which proved to be the key reason for a Greek victory in the Persian Wars to come. Prior to the Battle of Marathon (in 493 BC and later), Themistocles ‘suggested fortifying the Piraeus peninsula, which had 3 harbours.’ The Athenians could establish a citadel overlooking the 3 harbours, which previously, were open and indefensible. This motion however was interrupted by the battle and was completed after Persian defeat at Plataea in 479 BC.
One of the decrees’ provisions stated that surplus from minting was to be subjected into a fund, which was most likely used in an era of economical strain, and anyone who objected this would be imperiled to the death penalty. It’s through this coinage system, one of the first of its era for Greece, that Athens was able to effectively maintain its control over their allies and dominate from an economical point of view. Furthermore, Athens geographically coastal location was easily accessible for the construction of the way station, this was able to better Athens in terms of trade throughout the Aegean, therefore enabling the Athenians to successfully and effectively maintain control over its allies. It also presented the Athenians the opportunity to trade a certain type of marble extracted from Penteli which was renowned in the Greek world for its high quality, as well as silver coins, which, in places that didn’t have the need for coins, was melted back to its clump state and used for trading. Through this convenient location, Athens was further given another way to assert it’s effectiveness in controlling the other city-states or allies, as having such a readily available Athenian port was crucial in the trading between other civilizations, including that of Egypt, Syria and Palestine (as well as the rest of the Persian Empire) through naval transportations.
It is through all of these contributions made by Themistocles that guaranteed the Greek victory at Salamis. In conclusion, Themistocles' contributions made through his intelligence, leadersip at Salmis and his pre-war efforts in establishing a superior Athenian naval fleet greatly influenced the course of the second Persian wars and made him a key factor in both the Greek victory in the Persian wars and the Persian
America did strive to stretch from sea to shining sea. Its offspring of the westward expansions brought America very far and made American a great nation. Battles were fought but won, expanding took place and it was not a simplistic thing to do. America was the greatest nation of its times expansion has much to do with much achievements. For instance, it expanded geographically, economically and its diversity.
Athenians had been in previous wars and as time progressed it was clear that Athens had to be rebuilt, as the reconstruction process proceeded the Athenian empire began to dominate their allies politically and economically. The Athenians started the Delian League which provided funds for Athens to build up its navy which allowed them to gain power. Meanwhile Sparta, who was a military leader of the Greek world, made their own treaties that reached out to the Peloponnesian with the exception of Argos and Achaea.Both
Evaluation of the Changes in Roman Society Due to Punic Wars. The Punic wars were the important events in the western civilization as they were the taking place simultaneously with the development of Rome empire. The invasion of Italy left Rome with the major rival in the Carthage. Carthage is located on the peninsula in the Gulf of Tunis, and it is linked by two canals as it has two harbors. In all, there occurred three different Punic wars at different times.