The way in which the child behaves during the strange situation is determined by the behaviour the care giver presents to the child. For example insecure children are associated with inconsistent mothers and absent child are associated with unresponsive mothers (Oates, 2005). The desired attachment categorise is secure attachment.secure children are confident that the attachment figure will meet their needs, that they will provide a safe base. The children are easily soothed and look to the figure during distress or upset, these attachments are formed if the figure responses to their needs and is sensitive to their signals (Oates, 2005). As described by winncot ‘ good enough mothers’.
This then turns into general orientation, and the attachments bring their attention to each other. Research from Schaffer and Emerson show that attachment behaviours developed in stages which were loosely linked to age. Most babies started to show separation anxiety from their attachment figure at around 25 – 32weeks (6 – 8 months) indicating an attachment had been
A baby averages 5 diapers per day for 30 months. About 90% of mothers use disposable diapers. This number of mothers using disposable diapers is expected to fall about .5% annually over the next 3 years. Number of US Births 2006 3,959,400 2007 4,058,800 2008 4,025,900 2009 4,021,700 2010 4,089,950 P&G’s focus group research in Cincinnati and Topeka suggests that 15% of mothers using disposable diapers would try Sesame Street Pampers. Sesame Street Pampers are expected to sell on the premium end of the market.
There were a panel of experienced judges that observed the behaviours that were observed between the infants and caregivers. Data was collected every 15 seconds focused on different criteria. The SS consisted of 8 different parts that were formed to highlight/provoke certain behaviours. Some of the behaviours included the parent leaving the room, then the stranger ring there and then the parent returning. The data was then obtained from a variety of studies and the results combined to make a total of 106 middle-class children that were observed.
poor subsequent care and parent disharmony In contrast to this, Rutter et al (2007) studied 100 Romanian orphans and assessed them at 4, 6 and 11 years old. The children who had been adopted by British families before the age of 6 months have shown normal emotional development. This suggests that long term consequences may be less severe than thought if they are able to effectively form attachments at a young age. In this study one third of children recovered well which suggests that it is more likely that there are more factors e.g. poor subsequent care and parent disharmony One study supporting Bowlby’s theory of a ‘critical period’ is the example of Genie.
Describe and evaluate Ainsworth's work on attachment (12 marks) In 1978 Ainsworth et al studied the reactions of young children to brief separations from their mother in order to determine the nature of attachment behaviours and types of attachments Ainsworth’s procedure is known as the strange situation. In the study she conducted she use controlled observation infants were exposed to a sequence of 3 minute-episodes. The total observation period lasted for approximately 25 minutes. First the infant and mother were introduced to the observation room by the researcher, then the researcher left the room. After a while a stranger entered and had a brief conversation with the mother.
Throughout the set up, the infants were judged on an intensity scale of 1-7 (1 being the lowest and 7 the highest) which described their behaviour. This was Ainsworth’s quantitative data, though some of the method was qualitative. When the mother left the room and returned, with the effect of the stranger, the infants’ behaviour showed that the infants could fall into 3 types of behaviour. Type B is ‘secure attachment’; this is when the infants found it stressful and unsettling when their mother left the room. They did not care about the stranger attempting to give the comfort.
Yet children in Japan also show a high percentage of secure attachments this is due to the mothers rarely leaving their children in the care of another person and the fact that an infant’s clinginess and attention seeking behavior is seen as an indication of closeness and dependency. The Tokyo study in 1984 suggests that mothers of securely attached infants reported greater spousal support than mothers of insecurely (avoidant) attached infants (Berk, 2009). However on the other hand in Romanian Orphanages most of the children display insecure or ambivalent attachment styles due to spending their first 6 to 8 months without a primary caregiver, not creating that attachment bond and not receiving that intimate care. This then leads to problems in later childhood i.e. creating new attachment bonds, interacting with children, mental health problems and disruptive behavior.
Growth slows considerably in the second year of life (Burns & others, 2013). By 2 years of age, infants weigh approximately 26 to 32 pounds, having gained a quarter to half a pound per month during the second year to reach about onefifth of their adult weight. At 2 years of age, infants average 32 to 35 inches in height, which is nearly half of their adult height. What are some recommendations for families of young children in each of these areas?
Babies are very reliant on other people and can only do a few things for themselves. Following the milestones, babies should be able to smile and coo, kick their legs, play with their fingers, turn their head from side to side, hold a rattle for a short period of time and bring their hands to their mouth. Social/emotional. Babies have very limited social/emotional skills at this age yet they can: start to smile, recognise familiar people, develop relationships, know their own face and hands and turn to a familiar person’s voice. 6 months Physical.