Preemies at this gestation are used to floating in amniotic fluid and therefore you will see them twitch and flutter from time to time. The nerves and muscles of these preemies are still immature so their movement will be uncoordinated with a trembling and jerking quality. In the NICU, the baby is placed in “nests” or snuggle-ups to try and keep them in a flexed position, which is important for the development of muscle tone and strength. Sight: Babies at this gestational age will spend most of their time asleep and will never fully wake with eyes open and alert. Since vision is the last of the senses to develop and mature, preemies at this gestational age may actually still have fused eyelids.
Describe and evaluate Ainsworth's work on attachment (12 marks) In 1978 Ainsworth et al studied the reactions of young children to brief separations from their mother in order to determine the nature of attachment behaviours and types of attachments Ainsworth’s procedure is known as the strange situation. In the study she conducted she use controlled observation infants were exposed to a sequence of 3 minute-episodes. The total observation period lasted for approximately 25 minutes. First the infant and mother were introduced to the observation room by the researcher, then the researcher left the room. After a while a stranger entered and had a brief conversation with the mother.
2. Attachment Differences * Securely attached children play and explore comfortable when mother is near. * Insecurely attached explore less when mom is near and may cling, cry, or otherwise become upset. * Both mother and father love = predictors in childrens overall well-being. * Adult relationships = reflect the security/insecurity attachment styles of early childhood.
Most children do recover from this. They showed that there are many factors that will affect children when separated by the Childs temperament or the quality of care they receive. They said that they can minimise effects if the child is familiarised with their new home, know their daily routine and by talking about their mother. Bowlby proposed that long-term maternal deprivation is harmful and that the first 2.5 years in a Childs life is crucial as if separation occurs within that period than maternal deprivation may be permanent. Bowlby had conducted a test, to test his theory.
These drugs are ones that are not prescribed and are illegal. If they are being taken the baby is at risk mostly in the first 12 weeks when the foetus is developing. During pregnancy you cannot drink high levels of alcohol as the baby is going through critical development and this can cause them problems such as, mental disability, heart defects, cleft palate, hare lip, physical defects and kidney problems (FAS). In the first year of a baby’s life a bond between them and their parents needs to be formed. These relationships make a difference to the quality of care that the adult provides.
There are several theories of attachment, today I would like to discuss the most widely accepted of them; Bowlby’s Ethological Theory of Attachment (Berk p.196). Bowlby’s theory focuses on the importance of the infant-care giver bond in development of infants from birth to 24 months. Bowlby’s theory divides attachment on the first 2 years into 4 phases (Berk p. 196-197); • The first phase takes place from birth to approximately 6 weeks of age and is referred to as the Preattachment Phase, as the name suggests the infant has not developed any actual attachments to anyone, the child recognizes his/her mother, but is not yet attached. This is evident by the fact that the child does not mind being left in the care of an unfamiliar individual. During this phase the infant uses instinctive signals such as; grasping, smiling and crying to get the attention of those around them.
Bowlby noted the apparent distress in children separated from their mothers in unusual circumstances e.g. hospitalisation. In studying the more abnormal and distressing situations he attempted to shed light on an understanding of normal emotional attachment development, and how a disruption could prove damaging to the child emotionally and through to adult maturation. Bowlby suggested that the presence of the mother was just as crucial to the baby as being supplied basic needs such as food. His conclusions led him to postulate that the distress at separation from the mother was universal in babies.
They young children need their parents’ supervision and guidance, and with the stress of an ill baby and financial restraints, the older child, Manuel is picking up on the tension. He has become serious and watchful of the 3 ½ year old. The 2 children at home may be losing attention and affection as the parents are focused on the infant. With Alice present this help strengthen the family and provide supervision for the 2 older children so Maria and Jamie can focus on Rosarie’s care. The family appears to have an open system, as they have adapted to stressful situations over time.
Sudden Infant Death Syndrome Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) is the leading cause of death in infancy beyond the neonatal period. Current guidelines51 cite evidence that the risk of SIDS is reduced when infants sleep on their backs and in their parents’ room, but not in their parents’ bed. (For more information on this topic, see the Promoting Child Development theme.) Pacifiers have been linked with a lower risk of SIDS. It is recommended that infants be put to sleep with a pacifier, beginning at 1 month of age.
Melhuish (93) suggested that where variations in stable attachment occur, they are usually associated with the form of parenting such as divorce. Main and Cassidy (88) did research into stable attachment types by using a reunion test by which they analyse the reunion of child and parent after an hour of separation. Main and Cassidy observed this on 6 years whose attachment styles had been categorised when they were 1.They found that most of the children( 78% ) had the same attachment that they had when they were younger however in some cases the style changed but mostly because of major changes in