Throughout the set up, the infants were judged on an intensity scale of 1-7 (1 being the lowest and 7 the highest) which described their behaviour. This was Ainsworth’s quantitative data, though some of the method was qualitative. When the mother left the room and returned, with the effect of the stranger, the infants’ behaviour showed that the infants could fall into 3 types of behaviour. Type B is ‘secure attachment’; this is when the infants found it stressful and unsettling when their mother left the room. They did not care about the stranger attempting to give the comfort.
There are eight developmental conflicts according to Erickson’s theory and they are as follows: Trust vs. Mistrust; this stage occurs between birth and 18 months of age. During this stage children learn if they can trust the people around them. If when they cry or are hungry their needs are met ,they learn to trust. If their needs are not met regularly they learn to mistrust. If they fail to develop trust they become fearful of their world and of people.
Laura Myers Psyc October 11, 2012 Negative Effects Of Children in Foster Care at the Infant Stage of Life The negative effects on children that are placed in foster care at the infant stage of life can be the result of many actions by the foster parent and the caseworker, as well as how much visitation the children have with their nature parent. Over the years many studies have been conducted in this area of children affected by foster care placement. These studies showed that there are a few negative effects on children placed in foster care at the infant stage of life. Among these are emotional problems, bonding issues, and identity issues with themselves and parental figures. Although doctors, counselors, and foster care workers try their hardest to protect the children placed in foster care, the damage can and still does occur.
It is clear that postnatal maternal depression can impair maternal care and may be associated with delayed social, behavioral, cognitive, and physical development in growing children. There also is evidence that adolescent children of depressed fathers are likelier to experience psychopathology. This longitudinal cohort study, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), postulated that paternal depression postnatally would be associated with a heightened risk of behavioral and emotional problems at age 3.5 years. Participants included 13,351 mothers and 12,884 fathers, all of them evaluated 8 weeks postnatally using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). The fathers were again assessed when their children were 21 months old.
The first stage is the asocial stage where infants are aged between 0-6 weeks and smile and cry. These emotions are not directed to any individual in particular. The second stage is indiscriminate attachment between the ages of 6weeks to 7 months. Attention is sought from different individuals at this stage. The final stage is specific attachment between the ages of 7-11 months where a strong attachment is made to one individual and good attachments to others often follow.
According to Bowlby (1973), a child’s attachment pattern forms in relationship to the primary caregiver and is usually generalized to subsequent relationships. Individuals at significant risk for developing maladaptive attachment relationships are children who are abused or neglected by their caregiver. Early disruptions in the attachment relationship thwart the child’s ability to regulate arousal, develop secure relationships, and cope with stress. Not able to use caregivers as a secure base for exploration, children
Expected pattern of development for children and young people from birth to 19 years: Physical: changes in the body, growth, movement, how they see their environment. Communication Intellectual/cognitive: mental processes (language/memory/problem solving) used to acquire and use knowledge Social, emotional and behavioural (handling relationships with others and understanding themselves) Moral ( the process through which children develop proper attitudes and behaviour towards other people in society based on social and cultural norms, rules and laws) In reality these areas of development overlap as development in one area is enhanced and reinforced by growth in others. 0-1yr: In their first month infants spend most of their time asleep. They will try lifting their heads whilst lying on their fronts. Crying is the main form of communication and they will cry when hungry, in pain, need changing or simply need comforting.
For example, at birth typically a child’s vision is 20/600 and will not reach 20/20 until age two. They can usually focus on objects or people that are up to 4 to 30 inches away and can following a moving finger. Newborns also prefer colored stimuli compared to gray ones, but do not develop full perception of color until they are about four months old (Morrongiello et al., 1998). Newborns have reflexes as their sole physical ability. A reflex is an automatic body response to a stimulus that is involuntary; that is, the person has no control over this response.
beliefs, desires, intentions, imagination, emotions etc. The ability to impute mental states is very important because social relationships can be restricted if an individual assumes that everyone has the same beliefs that he or she has (Gillibrand et al., 2011). Support for TOM abilities has been supplied by various tasks. Dennett (1978) put forward that the only way to measure the ability to impute mental states is to test an individual’s understanding of false beliefs. Studies carried out suggest that typically developing children do not develop a TOM until they are around 4 years of age because they fail on false belief tasks (Wimmer and Perner, 1983; Baron-Cohen et al,1985 as cited in Gillibrand et al., 2011).
* 0 to 6 months * 6 to 18 months – the ‘doing’ stage * 18 months to 3 years – the ‘thinking’ stage * 3 to 6 years – the stage of ‘self awareness and imagination’ * Normal but challenging behaviours * 6 to 12 years – the stage for limits and structure * Teenagers ------------------------------------------------- 0 to 6 months The only way that new babies can communicate is by crying and some do it more than others. If a baby is unsettled, try to make them more settled by checking that their nappy is clean, that they are not too hot or too cold, that they are not hungry or that they do not have wind. Give a baby as much attention as you can but if you feel that something is not right, or if it gets too stressful, then seek advice from a friend or health professional straight away. 6 to 18 months – the ‘doing’ stage Around this age a child will begin to explore the world around them by touching, tasting, looking and listening. They will begin to develop their own initiative but will want you around to feel safe.