Stages of the Stepparent Child Relationship billy williams hinds community college Abstract The interaction between a child and a new stepparent can be considerably more complicated than the average relationship. The six stages of an interpersonal relationship are still present, but a stepparent is thrust into a position of authority, and may be perceived as a replacement for the biological parent. This paper attempts to explain some of the confusion, internal conflict, resentment and frustration that may stem from the remarriage of a parent. Some child-stepparent relationships do not start out under the best of circumstances, but functional relationships can develop. Ideally this paper will give a snapshot of the complex mechanisms of a stepparent-child dynamic as they relate to the six stages of a an interpersonal relationship.
According to Bowlby (1973), a child’s attachment pattern forms in relationship to the primary caregiver and is usually generalized to subsequent relationships. Individuals at significant risk for developing maladaptive attachment relationships are children who are abused or neglected by their caregiver. Early disruptions in the attachment relationship thwart the child’s ability to regulate arousal, develop secure relationships, and cope with stress. Not able to use caregivers as a secure base for exploration, children
On the other hand, if a parent is unable to properly cope with the child’s needs for care there is a risk of developing a non-secure attachment. Around the age of six or seven months, stronger sensations of attachment will enable a child to distinguish between strange people and caregivers. The child will start to display a recognizable preference to their parents over unfamiliar people or other caregivers. Demonstrated by clinging, crying, or turning/hiding away from strangers, anxiety is can be seen when the child is separated from their parents. Although this can be quite stressful for parents, it is a normal for stranger anxiety to occur and is a sign of a secure attachment.
There was a social worker involved until about six months ago when the case was closed partly due to pressures on the team and partly because the situation seemed stable at the time. 1. Identify what your powers, duties and responsibilities are towards the children and their mother in this situation. The Children Act (CA) 1989 s.17 (10) places a duty on local authorities to safeguard and promote the welfare of children who are living in their area and who are deemed as children in need (Johns, 2009). The Act describes in very broad terms what constitutes a child in need.
Conclusion 9. References Introduction For more than a decade, early childhood educators have been discussing issues of curriculum and teaching methods in terms of their developmental appropriateness. The concept of developmental appropriateness can also be extended to issues related to the assessment of children during the early years. Young children are difficult subjects to assess accurately because of their activity level and distractibility, shorter attention span, wariness of strangers, and inconsistent performance in unfamiliar environments. Other factors that may affect a child's performance include cultural differences and language barriers, parents not having books to read to their child and a child's lack of interaction with other children.
2.2 Parent-child Relationship Parent–child relationship quality is a measure of either the child or parent’s perception of the quality of their relationship (Crowl et al., 2008). The importance of the quality of parent-child relationship lies in the ability of children to form healthy and secure relationships. As young as the age of 2, children develop different attachment styles to their parents as demonstrated in Ainsworth’s experiment called Strange Situation (Kalat, 2015). Children with secure attachments tend to form trusting and stable relationships in the future while those with insecure attachments are mostly to develop into suspicious adults who lack trust in their relationships. As of present, the majority of literature has investigated
A bond that joins them together and withstands the test of time”. (Ainsworth, 1969) What is attachment and how does its many manifestations affect the well-being and psychological development of a child? Psychological evaluation of a child’s development is key to understanding the influence attachment may have and it is important to examine its many faces; from deprivation to separation. There have been many studies that investigate the role paternal deprivation plays and how it impact’s a child’s ability to create and maintain relationships and to become well-adjusted and developed as they grow older. In 1946 Spitz and Wolf undertook such a project, studying children in orphanages who had not formed attachments with a care giver or their parents before they entered the institution.
Children begin to learn the ability to trust others based upon the consistency of their caregiver(s). If trust develops successfully, the child gains confidence and security in the world around him and is able to feel secure even when threatened. Unsuccessful completion of this stage can result in an inability to trust, and therefore a sense of fear about the inconsistent world. It may result in anxiety, heightened insecurities, and an over feeling of mistrust in the world around them. Early Childhood (2 to 3 years): Autonomy versus shame and doubt .
Although doctors, counselors, and foster care workers try their hardest to protect the children placed in foster care, the damage can and still does occur. After this occurs, the best plan of actions is to treat the child to correct the damage so the child can live a normal emotional life. According to the Society of Child Development, Inc, children at the infant stage of life need to form an emotional bond with a caregiver. That is normally the biological mother. Infants in biologically organize their attachment behaviors around the availability of their caregivers.
The challenge is to identify and use other relevant information to improve decisions about individual children. Speech, language and communication difficulties can have a profound and lasting effect on children's lives. For a small percentage of children their disability cannot be prevented, but early intervention is just as vital as for those with less severe difficulties to help give a child the best possible support that they need. The impact of these difficulties will vary according to the severity of the problem, the support the child receives, the child's confidence and the demands of the child's environment. Children with specific language impairment have Social and behavioural problems, Withdrawn behaviour Aggressive behaviour Difficulty relating to others Learning difficulties There are thousands of children and young people effectively disabled by Speech, language and communication impairments.