Bowlby believed in the evolutionary theory of attachment suggesting that humans were born biologically programmed to form attachments in order to successfully survive. An example of this would be the instinctive fear of strangers, which demonstrates an important survival mechanism. He furthermore believed that the attachment relationship between mother and child acted as a prototype for future social relationships, therefore disrupting this by means of day-care could have severe consequences. Disrupting the bond to the attachment figure (mother) during the first 2-year period through day-care meant that the child would suffer long-term consequences on their ability to socialise and cause; delinquency, reduced intelligence, increased aggression, depression and being under affectionate. Bowlby’s ‘Thieves study’ in 1944 aimed to investigate the effects of maternal deprivation through 44 adolescents who were referred to a child protection program in London because of stealing and was resolved by supporting his initial ideas.
Bowlby’s research identified a maternal deprivation hypothesis which stated that an infant had to form an attachment to its mother during the first two years of its life, known as the critical period, and if this attachment was disrupted due to deprivation the child would develop irreversible intellectual, social and behavioural problems in later life. Attachment was defined by Mary Ainsworth as a deep and enduring emotional bond that connects one person to another across time and space (www.simplypsychology.org, 2011). Bowlby quoted in his 1951 report that mother love in infancy was as important for mental health as was vitamins and proteins for physical health. Bowlby’s theory was influenced with the ethological works of Lorenz’s study on imprinting, the rapid attachment formed as a result of following a moving object shortly after birth, and Harlow’s study on Rhesus Monkeys, which both concluded that attachment to a main care giver in young ducklings and monkeys, respectively, was imperative and instinctive for survival. Bowlby’s research highlighted the idea of monotropy, which suggested that children were genetically programmed to form attachments to their mother, the main care giver, and that it was important for
Ainsworth’s strange situation The strange situation was an experiment carried out by Mary Ainsworth to measure and test the nature of attachment between an infant and their caregiver. The strange situation (SS) was used to look at how infants react under a stressful situation e.g. separated from caregiver (causing separation anxiety) and also the presence of a stranger (stranger anxiety). Furthermore it aimed to encourage infants to explore. There were a panel of experienced judges that observed the behaviours that were observed between the infants and caregivers.
1st part Horney: Psychoanalytic Social Theory 1. What is the basic assumption of Karen Horney’s Psychoanalytic Social Theory? * Social and cultural conditions, especially childhood experiences, are largely responsible for shaping personality. * People who do not have their needs for love and affection satisfied during childhood develop basic hostility toward their parents and, as a consequence, suffer from basic anxiety. 2.
According to Bowlby (1973), a child’s attachment pattern forms in relationship to the primary caregiver and is usually generalized to subsequent relationships. Individuals at significant risk for developing maladaptive attachment relationships are children who are abused or neglected by their caregiver. Early disruptions in the attachment relationship thwart the child’s ability to regulate arousal, develop secure relationships, and cope with stress. Not able to use caregivers as a secure base for exploration, children
John Bowlby (1907- 1990) was a British psychiatrist, psychologist and psychoanalyst, who is famous for his interest in child development and for his pioneering work into attachment theory. Bowlby’s theory of attachment is based on the premise that the mother – baby attachment is unique and different from any other relationship the child may have. Bowlby claimed that “mother love in infancy and childhood is as important for mental health as are vitamins and proteins for physical health” (Bowlby, 1951). From this, Bowlby emphasised the importance of the bond between infants and their primary carers (usually their mothers) and from this bond came attachment, between infant and mother. Bowlby’s theory also included the effect of separation on infants when they were separated from their primary carers.
Laura Myers Psyc October 11, 2012 Negative Effects Of Children in Foster Care at the Infant Stage of Life The negative effects on children that are placed in foster care at the infant stage of life can be the result of many actions by the foster parent and the caseworker, as well as how much visitation the children have with their nature parent. Over the years many studies have been conducted in this area of children affected by foster care placement. These studies showed that there are a few negative effects on children placed in foster care at the infant stage of life. Among these are emotional problems, bonding issues, and identity issues with themselves and parental figures. Although doctors, counselors, and foster care workers try their hardest to protect the children placed in foster care, the damage can and still does occur.
I am also going to discuss some of the research that is in opposition to bed sharing. Bed sharing is a controversial subject that has a very clear support and oppositional views; however, all views are in support of providing an infant with safety, security and emotional well-being. Many researchers on the opposing side have recently discussed bed sharing as a large risk factor for Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) (Hoffman & Sperhake, 2014). Independency is another factor that is often criticized by researchers; many researchers believe that bed sharing will decrease a child’s independency and autonomy later in life (Keller & Goldberg, 2004). Another common concern that researchers have with bed sharing is that children will grow to develop abnormal psychological dependency and will have and impact on temperament and sleep problems later in life (Hayes, Parker, Sallinen & Davare, 2001).
fast mapping) and the learning theories that support the relationships you identify. Q4 There are many risk factors for children prior to birth and during early development through infancy and toddler years. Often, children with many risk factors (such as poverty and poor access to health care) suffer from one or more developmental delays. To prevent these delays, children with many risk factors are placed in early intervention services to help identify and prevent delays. Using the risk factors named in your book (or found in your own research), create a one paragraph scenario that states the age of a child, his or her gender, and some risk factors.
John Bowlby’s theory of Attachment John Bowlby is an evolutionary psychologist within the filed of developmental psychology. His theory provides an evolutionary perspective towards attachment combining Freud’s views on the importance of the maternal care (psychoanalytic approach) and the ethnologists’ views on imprinting. Bowlby’s theory suggested that attachment is an innate and adaptive process. An infant is genetically programmed in a way for survival and has been ascribed skills such as sucking, grasping, crying: known as “social releasers”. Bowlby believed that a mother has similar genetic coding that allows her to react instinctive to, and respond to her infants needs.