NESTLÉ: THE INFANT FORMULA CONTROVERSY 1. What are the responsibilities of companies in this or similar situations? * Send donations or work in an hospital organization to help the babies and their mothers * Sponsor events that have as theme the nutrition of infants * Nestlé needs to learn from its mistakes and should look like they care and are responsible for its issues * Must reposition their products 2. What could Nestlé have done to have avoided the accusations of ‘’killing Third World babies’’ and still market its product? * Support breast feeding and present its benefits * Search and learn about the culture of every possible market * Free tests for HIV 3.
N.b. controls: individuals referred to clinic because of emotional problems, but not yet committed any crimes. He interviewed the parents from both groups to state whether their children had experienced separation during the critical period and for how long. [pic]Findings: More than half of the juvenile thieves had been separated from their mothers for longer than six months during their first five years. In the control group only two had had such a separation.
His findings into attachment radically challenged the prevalent behaviourist theory of Watson of learned infant attachment in response to constant stimuli and the psychoanalytical theory of Freud that attachment was based on biological needs or ‘cupboard love’ theories as unreliable. (Custance, 2010). Within this essay I will attempt to describe both Harlow’s and Ainsworth research methods and compare and contrast their findings and criticisms. Harry Harlow’s work on attachment focused on the bond between infant and mother. Harlow wanted to investigate whether attachment was based on the ‘cupboard love’ theory of Freud and Watson or on Bowlby’s suggestion that attachment was an innate tendency in response to warmth and tactility.
According to Bowlby (1973) a strong emotional bond between the mother figure and the infant called attachment has the biological origin. He hypothesised that for the baby to survive, it has to for an attachment, it needs to have a secure base, from which it can explore the environment and in times of danger or distress, a base it can return to for comfort and security. Bowlby argued that lack of such a secure base leads to infant developing an extreme distress called by developmental psychologists a 'separation anxiety'. The research by Robertson and Robertson (1989) into parent-child separations when either a primary caregiver or a child becomes hospitalized validates Bowlby's reasoning. This idea of attachment as innate adaptation mechanism is also supported by Harlow's (1958) research on primates into maternal deprivation.
Regardless of age, the emotional impact of children will differ between boys and girls. The manner in which Boys act their emotional pain is visible through external actions while girls tend to internalize their emotional distress. In a study involving 60 families several common emotional issues that children encountered were identified: fear, confusion, sadness, worry, feeling rejected, loneliness, divided loyalties, anger, and acute depression. The Journal of Marriage and Family published an article in 2010 that analyzed the connection between divorce and the performance of children in school while taking the impact of psychosocial wellbeing into consideration. Based on the results of the study a direct correlation between children from divorced homes and lower test scores can be seen, when compared to families without divorce.
Sensitive parenting is the most important factor in a child’s psychological development – discuss This essay will explore the concept of sensitive parenting and will look at how the dynamic interactions between parent and child inform Attachment Theory a model which measures child development. This model, pioneered by Bowlby is posited within the principles of a psychoanalytic and biological perspective (Bee, H.L., 2000). Child attachment can be classified into two main types, secure and insecure, by using a standard laboratory assessment known as the “Strange Situation” developed by Ainsworth, insecure attachment was divided further into sub groups, ambivalent and avoidant (Ding, S. & Littleton, K. 2005). Whilst discussing attachment theory which utilises the concept of an internal working model other approaches in terms of understanding how parenting affects child development will be explored. Theoretical positions such as social learning theory which lies heavily on behaviourist principles will be looked at, parenting styles where patterns of parenting will be discussed and inter-generational transmission which serves to perpetuate society’s inequalities and disadvantages with negative connotations for a child’s psychological development (Ding, S. & Littleton, K. 2005).
Hundred and forty youth completed the interview and it showed that they have mental health problems like; conduct disorder, depression, fulfillment of the DSM-III criteria for and emotional and behavioral disorder and attempt of suicide (Feitel, Margetson, Chamas, Lipman, 1992). A study was conducted between adolescent runaways and adolescents who never ran away. A self administered questionnaire which was confidential was used. The runaways who were administered in this study indicated that situational stresses affected them through which their functioning was impaired. These stresses included relation with family, schools, etc.
Foster care is meant to be a temporary arrangement, though children stay in care for an average of two years, and there are currently over five hundred thousand children in care. “Roughly sixty percent of foster children return home; fifteen percent are adopted; and the remainder “age out” of foster care(“Breaking”).” Three-quarters of these children live with substitute families, one-third of which are headed by relatives of the children. Further, foster care policy directly targets children who appear to be at high risk of poor life outcomes. Abused children are three times more likely to die in childhood, with fourteen hundred child deaths each year directly attributed to child abuse. One doctor notes, “Those placed in foster care are far more likely than are other children to commit crimes, drop out of school, join welfare, experience substance abuse problems, or enter the homeless population(“National”).” In particular, nearly 20 percent of young prison inmates and 28 percent of homeless individuals spent some time in foster care as a youth.
The Office of National Statistics, interviewed parents, teachers, and children themselves, and found that many suffer from emotional problems such as depression, anxiety and aggression. Statistics show that over a 3 year period, children whose parents were split up were 4.53 more likely to develop emotional problems than those whose parents were still in one household, and were 2.87 times more likely to demonstrate the start of behavioral disorders. Edmondson, Brad/Waldrop, Judith “Single Parents Statistics” American Demographics, Dec93, Vol. 15 Issue 12, p36, 2p, 2 Charts, 1 Graph. Per the US Census Bureau single parents consist of “other families” which are households of unmarried couples.
Discuss this statement in context of relevant developmental theory. | The aim of this paper is to examine the importance of ‘sensitive mothering‘(Ainsworth in Smith, Cowie & Blades, 2003) in the social and emotional development of children. Developmental theories, such as Bowlby’s attachment theory (Bowlby, 1988), Ainsworth’s research, Erik Erikson’s psychological stages of personality (and other relevant research will be discussed to create an understanding of how the bond between mother/primary caregiver and child is essential for a healthy mental and social development. Furthermore, research that considers how early attachment impacts on the social and emotional development of 3-5 year olds and adults will be determined. Mary Ainsworth and other intellects investigated the process of mothering and how it affects the child’s attachment towards the mother/caregiver.