Secure base which is basically when the caregiver provides a secure and dependable base for the child to explore the world. Proximity maintenance; when the child strives to stay near the caregiver, thus keeping the child safe. Finally, separation distress which is when separated from the caregiver, the child will become upset and distressed. Ainsworth in short reinforced the same concepts that Bowlby had for attachment and introduced a few new concepts of her own. Ainsworth explored her “Strange Situation” study.
Being attached to someone means that you have formed an emotional relationship to that person. This is important thorough out our lives but particularly important during the vulnerable period of infancy when babies rely on caregivers to meet their needs (Cardwell, Clark & Meldrum, 2003). Forming an attachment to a primary caregiver is an innate behaviour and insures survival of the infant. This essay will describe and evaluate Ainsworth’s (1970) Strange Situation procedure and will discuss the types of attachments infant form. The psychologist John Bowlby (1969) suggested that infant attachments influence their emotional development through an internal working model which acts as a template for future relationships.
Infants in biologically organize their attachment behaviors around the availability of their caregivers. When infants find caregivers to be available in times of need, they tend to develop expectations that caregivers will be there in the future of times needed in the future. Behaviorally, these infants then seek out the comfort they need (Sroufe, 1989) from caregivers with confident expectations that they will be soothed. Such infants are categorized as having secure attachments to caregivers. When caregivers are not responsive to infants’ needs or there are many different caregivers in an infants’ life, infants can develop an insecurity to bond because they cannot identify who the main caregiver is supposed
If Sasha's grandmother had remained calm while seeking out help most likely Sasha would have been afraid but not as fearful as she was in this situation. 2. The impact of trauma is pervasive, affecting the physical development of the brain and the quality of children's relationships and attachments with others. Based on pages 10–11 of Hope and Healing and the essay "Stress, Nurture, and the Young Brain" in Concepts for Care, describe the impact of trauma on each of these areas of young children's development. Trauma affects young children's
Bowlby put forward the principle of monotropy, believing that the infant displays a strong innate tendency to form an attachment with one significant person, not necessarily, but usually the mother. (Gross, R. 2005). This was criticised by Rutter (1981), who claimed that the mother is not special in the way that the infant shows its attachment, as children will show a whole range of attachment behaviours towards a variety of people. Bowlby (1969), cited in Martin et al 2007 p. 546) claimed that the most important attachment behaviours are sucking, cuddling, looking, smiling and crying. According to Freud the newborn infant lives in a solipsistic world of ‘primary narcissism’ and experiences a build-up of tension with the need to suck the breast as an expression of his infantile sexuality.
Hewas in support of child day care as long as it was continuous and high quality,although a preference of parental care was suggested by Rutter. There is a difficulty in isolatingvariables which result in positive and negative attachments. Indeed somefeminists argue that stay at home mothers are often at risk of harming theirchildren through an inability to cope and lack of support from immediate orextended family. Associated with this argument is that of the risk fromdomestic violence which increases isolation and effects the development of thechild - even if the primary caregiver is ever present. From the 1950s anincreased development of the nuclear family has been argued to provide a duelfunction.
Q: Outline and Evaluate Bowlby’s Theory. (12 Marks) Bowlby believed we are born with an innate tendency to form attachments. Bowlby believed that to help us attach we have inborn social releasers are our reactions. For example a baby might giggle to show happiness or cry to show sadness. The crying will act as an inborn social releaser as the mother will come to the aid of her child and try to comfort it always.
Bowlby proposed that an internal working model (IWM) developed in childhood will determine or affect later adult relationships and how successful they are. Ainsworth’s strange situation helped develop three main types of attachment: secure, resistant and avoidant. Secure children develop a positive model of themselves and relationships as their primary caregiver was sensitive, emotionally responsive and supportive. Resistant children have parents who were inconsistent in their care giving, resulting in the child having a negative image of themself - often seeking attention but not finding comfort when they receive it. Avoidant children often have rejecting parents, which leads to them developing an internal model which makes them think they are unacceptable and unworthy.
Discuss Research Into Different Types Of Attachment Mary Ainsworth did a study and designed an experiment to assess different types of attachment between infants and caregiver. Ainsworth did a “strange situation” study which involved observing children between the ages of 12 to 18 months responding to situation in which they were briefly left alone and then reunited with their mother. The experiment was a controlled observation done by using video cameras in a purpose built laboratory playroom. From the strange situation study they found both similarities and differences in the ways that infants behaved. In terms of similarities they noted that proximity-seeking and contact maintaining behaviour intensified during separation and when the stranger appeared whereas resisting and avoiding behaviours occurred rarely towards the caregiver prior to separation.
Ainsworth’s strange situation The strange situation was an experiment carried out by Mary Ainsworth to measure and test the nature of attachment between an infant and their caregiver. The strange situation (SS) was used to look at how infants react under a stressful situation e.g. separated from caregiver (causing separation anxiety) and also the presence of a stranger (stranger anxiety). Furthermore it aimed to encourage infants to explore. There were a panel of experienced judges that observed the behaviours that were observed between the infants and caregivers.