Bowlby Attachment Theory

2044 Words9 Pages
Spelling, references, abbreviations TMA03 Option two: How has Bowlby’s Formulation of attachment theory been modified in the light of subsequent research? Attachment is a deep and emotional bond connecting one person to another (Lamb, Lewis and Oates, 2005). Attachments form as security to child in times of distress and upset. They are not just to satisfy basic needs of survival. This essay will explore how work by Bowlby has been modified in terms of how it has been developed in light of later research. This essay will look at how Bowlby’s work has raised questions around the importance the mother figure has on children’s development and how this might effect later life and how later research has addressed these questions. Ethological…show more content…
Bowlby begun to explore this. Bowlby (as cited in Oates, 2005) was inspired by this previous ethological work and was interested in linking such findings with human development (Oates, 2005). Bowlby’s focus was children’s attachment during the critical period and the effect it has on later development. Bowlby was influenced by work of Winnicot. Winnicot’s (1953) work on mothers and infants demonstrated the important for mothers to be emotionally ready to be a ‘good enough mother’ by having tolerance of waiting out a child’s frustration and the confidence in providing satisfaction (Oates, 2005). Bowlby ultimately was influenced by work from the Robertson’s. The Robertson’s (1989) studied separation anxiety in children (Oates, 2005). The behaviour of the child once separated from their parents reflected how strong the attachment is. The combination of winncot and the Robertson’s work inspired Bowlby attachment theory (Oates,…show more content…
She developed on Bowlby’s IWM theory by looking at the individual differences on types of attachments that may be formed to the primary care-giver. Ainsworth looked at children’s behaviour during separation from their mothers, beginning in Uganda and a later study in the US Ainsworth developed the strange situation experiment as a standard test to measure attachment in children (Oates, 2005). From her results she discovered three main times of attachment. Secure, insecure (split into sub-categories) and absent (Oates, 2005). The way in which the child behaves during the strange situation is determined by the behaviour the care giver presents to the child. For example insecure children are associated with inconsistent mothers and absent child are associated with unresponsive mothers (Oates, 2005). The desired attachment categorise is secure attachment.secure children are confident that the attachment figure will meet their needs, that they will provide a safe base. The children are easily soothed and look to the figure during distress or upset, these attachments are formed if the figure responses to their needs and is sensitive to their signals (Oates, 2005). As described by winncot ‘ good enough mothers’. As suggest by Bowlby, an individual who experiences secure attachment has a positive IWM as attachment being available and responsive (Oates,
Open Document