Likewise, Mary Ainsworth has contributed her “strange situation” in order to measure the quality of attachment and developed different categories that describe various levels of attachment between child and caregiver. The theories of John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth are two that have greatly impacted and influenced the research of developmental and attachment psychology. Since their contributions, researchers have added on by developing connections between environmental factors that may also influence an individual’s development and explain obstacles of adult interaction and interpersonal relationships. Theories of Attachment John Bowlby defined attachment as the emotional bond that a child develops with their primary caregiver. His theory was based on the idea that attachment was an instinctive and evolutionary function in order to ensure the survival of the species.
The attachment theory is a psychodynamic theory. Psychodynamics is defined as the systematic study and theory of the psychological forces that underline human behavior, emphasizing the interplay between unconscious and conscious motivation. Bowlby broke down his theory into four characteristics of attachment. Safe haven which is when the child feels threatened or afraid, he or she can return to the caregiver for comfort and soothing. Secure base which is basically when the caregiver provides a secure and dependable base for the child to explore the world.
John Bowlby’s theory of Attachment John Bowlby is an evolutionary psychologist within the filed of developmental psychology. His theory provides an evolutionary perspective towards attachment combining Freud’s views on the importance of the maternal care (psychoanalytic approach) and the ethnologists’ views on imprinting. Bowlby’s theory suggested that attachment is an innate and adaptive process. An infant is genetically programmed in a way for survival and has been ascribed skills such as sucking, grasping, crying: known as “social releasers”. Bowlby believed that a mother has similar genetic coding that allows her to react instinctive to, and respond to her infants needs.
Evaluate Bowlby’s evolutionary theory of attachment Attachment is an emotional connection or bond which involves being dependent on another person. When applied to the ‘Attachment Theory’ it is an emotional connection between the child and the primary caregiver which is dependent on mutual affection. Bowlby’s theory of attachment was evolutionary. The theory of evolution was developed by Charles Darwin, the theory states that all species evolve through time through natural selection. As species reproduce and the generations go by the traits which helped the animal survive are passed on.
Bowlby has the idea that attachment has evolved and it is innate as it increases the likelihood of survival and reproduction, he suggests that children are already born with this innate drive and that they were born to perform these behaviours and born to attain attachment. To enhance the survival of their offspring caregiving is also adaptive and we are born to care for our children. He suggests that infants were born with social releasers such as crying and smiling which encourage caregiving. Bowlby also suggests that there is a best time to form an attachment, this is called the sensitive period where infants are most sensitive to development of attachments and Bowlby would suggest that this is when the child is 3-6 months old. However, attachment can still take place at other times but it becomes increasingly difficult.
Attachment Theory is an explanation of personality development in the context of close relationships and can explain people’s patterns of relationships through life. John Bowlby (Howe, 1998) is the major influencing name who explained the importance of attachment and humans as social beings. Bowlby (1969) work was largely developed by Mary Ainsworth and her colleagues (1978, cited from Smith, Cowie and Blades, 2003 ) whose work was named ‘The Strange Situation’. The strange situation consisted of a practical demonstration where the behaviour of a child was observed in the presence and absence of their primary caregiver (usually the mother) and also in the presence and absence of a stranger. Depending on the behaviour illustrated by the child, a ‘type’ of attachment was given from the following; Secure, Avoidant, Ambivalent or disorganised.
John Bowlby John Bowlby (1907 - 1990) was a psychoanalyst (like Freud) and believed that mental health and behavioural problems could be attributed to early childhood. Bowlby’s evolutionary theory of attachment suggests that children come into the world biologically pre-programmed to form attachments with others, because this will help them to survive. Bowlby was very much influenced by ethological theory in general, but especially by Lorenz’s (1935) study of imprinting. Lornez showed that attachment was innate (in young ducklings) and therefore has a survival value. Bowlby believed that attachment behaviours are instinctive and will be activated by any conditions that seem to threaten the achievement of proximity, such as separation, insecurity and fear.
Garrett Heffernan ENS 301 MW 1:00-1:50pm Prof Voigt. 2/15/15 Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development Jean Piaget was a French psychologist who in 1936 set out to determine the ways in which children learn. His research was the first of it’s kind in that he was the first to conduct a study specifically on how children learn as opposed to people in general. The basis of Piaget’s finding where that there is four stages of cognitive development that children progress through as they approach maturity. Piaget believed that before entering one of these stages a child would be unable to understand certain concepts that fit within each specific learning window.
It highlights the important concepts of the theory, its chief tenets and its application during the early childhood relationships. Then, the essay goes on to examine the ways in which knowledge and understanding of the theory help social workers to promote and safeguard the welfare of children. The examination mainly focuses on how the attachment theory can help social workers in assessing, intervening, examining the causes of child abuse and how children are looked after. Theory of attachment Attachment theory is the strongest theoretical influence in modern-day studies of infant-parent relationships. John Bowlby was the first exponent of the theory.
Their theory contributed to what we have today as the attachment theory. Her observation studies 1941whilst at her nursery for children as a result of the war, give her insight into child development and the contribution to childhood disorders which lead to her publishing, “Normality and Pathology in Childhood” in 1965. This theory also draw from concept of the psychoanalytic theory, namely Sigmund Freud an Austrian neurologist. He was of the opinion that a person has a time frame to pass through a specific stage; the oral, anal, phallic, latency, and the genital stage. If they do not overcome each stage, they become fixated to that stage, resulting in unresolved issues in their adult life.