Psychologists have put forward different explanations of attachment, such as learning theory and Bowlby’s theory. Outline and evaluate one of more explanations. Bowlby’s Theory of attachment encompasses many different parts, such as Monotropy’s, sensitive periods and many other things. One of the things Bowlby suggested was that babies form a monotropy. This is where the baby for one special attachment to their main caregiver, which is generally (but not always) the mother.
language and socialisation) Explain the course of development according to these descriptions That is, a theory must account for the transitions from one point in development to another and must identify causal variables affecting transition * Bowlby’s Theory of Attachment. # * Reading Chp 6 Boyd & Bee, (2009) PLAN Initial outline of essay Bowlby’s attachment theory was initially developed and then revdeveoped in ollboration with Mary Ainsworth (1969) using their Ganda study The contribution of attachment theory to the social and emotional development of children is critical in assessing the healthy and secure attachment of children to their mother, first and foremost, then, as the child develops through 54 weeks and 2-3 years old – that they begin to relate positively to key carers that play an integral and familiar role in their life. These relationships play a role and can, if the child has had an unstable home and parental environment during their early development, affect detrimentally their ability to form new bonds as adolecscents and possibly adults. However, a child raised in a stable and emotionally secure environment, will develop secure and
John Bowlby’s theory of Attachment John Bowlby is an evolutionary psychologist within the filed of developmental psychology. His theory provides an evolutionary perspective towards attachment combining Freud’s views on the importance of the maternal care (psychoanalytic approach) and the ethnologists’ views on imprinting. Bowlby’s theory suggested that attachment is an innate and adaptive process. An infant is genetically programmed in a way for survival and has been ascribed skills such as sucking, grasping, crying: known as “social releasers”. Bowlby believed that a mother has similar genetic coding that allows her to react instinctive to, and respond to her infants needs.
Likewise, Mary Ainsworth has contributed her “strange situation” in order to measure the quality of attachment and developed different categories that describe various levels of attachment between child and caregiver. The theories of John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth are two that have greatly impacted and influenced the research of developmental and attachment psychology. Since their contributions, researchers have added on by developing connections between environmental factors that may also influence an individual’s development and explain obstacles of adult interaction and interpersonal relationships. Theories of Attachment John Bowlby defined attachment as the emotional bond that a child develops with their primary caregiver. His theory was based on the idea that attachment was an instinctive and evolutionary function in order to ensure the survival of the species.
Infants that have ambivalent attachment are deeply distressed in the absence of their mothers, fear strangers and resists contact with their mothers after reunion. The characteristics of an infant with avoidant attachment are lack of distress when the mother leaves, very social with strangers, little interest when the mother returns and can be comforted equally by the mother or by a stranger. Characteristics of people with disorganized attachment are that their behaviour is bizarre, look fearful and are insecure around their mothers and will freeze or try to leave after reuniting with their mothers. These attachments are different from each other depending on the four interaction methods. How attachment affects parenting Parental behaviour is one of the factors that exhibit the relationship between infant and adult
I am hoping to learn about the different types of attachment in infants and how it affects their lives. Attachment is defined as the development of the human bond between infant and parents or other caregivers. Schaffer, (1997) believes infants go through three steps: discerning the difference between humans and objects, distinguishing the mother from other humans and showing signs of missing the mother when she leaves. Developing stranger anxiety comes along at about seven months of age. Mothers are considered the primary care giver; however the roles of the father are being redefined by males.
Discuss the influence of parent-child relationships and interactions with peers on adult relationships (8 + 16 marks) Although everybody’s childhood is unique, psychologists have identified persistent themes in childhood experiences that predispose us towards particular types of relationships as adults. Concerning the influence of parent-child relationships upon adult relationships, Shaver et al. outlined three systems that are acquired during infancy. The first is the attachment system which is related to the internal working model where aspects of an early attachment style continue to affect the child’s relationships during adulthood. This is due to the infant’s primary attachment figure causing the child to develop a particular internal working model of relationships leading the infant to expect that it will have similar relationships to that of their attachment figure in later life.
Attachment Theory is an explanation of personality development in the context of close relationships and can explain people’s patterns of relationships through life. John Bowlby (Howe, 1998) is the major influencing name who explained the importance of attachment and humans as social beings. Bowlby (1969) work was largely developed by Mary Ainsworth and her colleagues (1978, cited from Smith, Cowie and Blades, 2003 ) whose work was named ‘The Strange Situation’. The strange situation consisted of a practical demonstration where the behaviour of a child was observed in the presence and absence of their primary caregiver (usually the mother) and also in the presence and absence of a stranger. Depending on the behaviour illustrated by the child, a ‘type’ of attachment was given from the following; Secure, Avoidant, Ambivalent or disorganised.
The child’s first bond, called attachment, is an enduring emotional tie that unites the child to one or more caregivers and has a far- reaching effects on the child’s development. Attachment is an emotional bond to another person. Psychologist John Bowlby was the first attachment theorist, describing attachment as a “lasting psychological connectedness between human beings.” Bowlby believed the earliest attachments between children and their caregivers have a tremendous impact that continues throughout life. According to Bowlby, attachment also serves to keep the infant close to the mother, thus improving the chances for survival. The central idea of attachment theory is that mothers who are available and responsive to their infant’s needs establish a sense for security.
One of the main areas of focus in development psychology is the affect the early relationships we experience during childhood, such as those with our parents, can have in our later relationships in adulthood. These adult to child relationships are known as vertical relationships, and the fact that these can then shape our later horizontal relationships (adult to adult) is known as attachment theory. John Bowlby (1940) believed that an infant having a mother figure that represented a permanent source of comfort and security, allows them to build up and ‘internal working model’ of their relationship. Internal working model is a “set of expectations for how oneself and another person will relate to each other” (Wood, Littleton and Oates, 2002, p.29). Bowlby theorised that whatever working model a child form will dictate the approach they take to future relationships.