Bowlby's aim was to discover the consequences of difficulties in forming attachments in childhood, and the effects this would have on an infant's later development. Drawing on much work in the psychoanalytic literature, such as that of Freud and Harlow, Bowlby formulated the idea that infants develop a close emotional bond with an attachment figure early in life, and that the success or failure of this earliest of relationships lead the infant to form a mental representation that would have profound effects on their later relationships and their own success as a
Attachments take different forms, such as secure or insecure. Infants display attachment through the degree of separation distress shown when separated from the caregiver, pleasure at reunion and stranger anxiety. One such theory regarding how attachment works and forms is called the learning theory. The learning theory focuses on how the bond of attachment as described above forms through an infant's physiological needs and the caregiver responds to those needs on a survival basis. The learning theory describes two types of actual learning in relation to this known as classical conditioning and operant conditioning.
These include safety, where the child will feel safe in their attachment to their mother but separation will lead to anxiety. Also it is seen as a safe base for the infant as they feel they have a safe place to return to. This also leads onto the independent working model, which based on freuds idea of the mother and child relationship, bowlbys believes that the first attachment forms a relationship template that allows the child to understand a relationship and the future be able to form a comfortable relationship they and familiar of. This relates to bowlbys continuity hypothesis, where the internal working model ensures that attachments will be reflected in relationships in the persons later life. For example if a child has insecure attachments as a child, this would lead to be shown in difficulties with later relationships.
According to Bowlby (1973) a strong emotional bond between the mother figure and the infant called attachment has the biological origin. He hypothesised that for the baby to survive, it has to for an attachment, it needs to have a secure base, from which it can explore the environment and in times of danger or distress, a base it can return to for comfort and security. Bowlby argued that lack of such a secure base leads to infant developing an extreme distress called by developmental psychologists a 'separation anxiety'. The research by Robertson and Robertson (1989) into parent-child separations when either a primary caregiver or a child becomes hospitalized validates Bowlby's reasoning. This idea of attachment as innate adaptation mechanism is also supported by Harlow's (1958) research on primates into maternal deprivation.
language and socialisation) Explain the course of development according to these descriptions That is, a theory must account for the transitions from one point in development to another and must identify causal variables affecting transition * Bowlby’s Theory of Attachment. # * Reading Chp 6 Boyd & Bee, (2009) PLAN Initial outline of essay Bowlby’s attachment theory was initially developed and then revdeveoped in ollboration with Mary Ainsworth (1969) using their Ganda study The contribution of attachment theory to the social and emotional development of children is critical in assessing the healthy and secure attachment of children to their mother, first and foremost, then, as the child develops through 54 weeks and 2-3 years old – that they begin to relate positively to key carers that play an integral and familiar role in their life. These relationships play a role and can, if the child has had an unstable home and parental environment during their early development, affect detrimentally their ability to form new bonds as adolecscents and possibly adults. However, a child raised in a stable and emotionally secure environment, will develop secure and
Bowlby’s evolutionary theory of attachment suggests that children come into theworld pre-programmed to form attachments with others as this will help them tosurvive. His theory consists of five clear factors that were linked to the developmentof attachment from an infant to its primary care giver; usually the mother. Firstly hestates that attachments are “adaptive” which means the child is at an advantageto survive as it ensures safety and food in order to reproduce. Bowlby states thatchildren are born with innate social releasers such as laughing, crying and attractivefacial features including big cheeks and large eyes which provide them with extracare and comfort. It is important for the infant to form a bond with its caregiverwithin a certain period of time, also known as the critical period.
This is called monotropy. Other attachments may develop in a hierarchy. An infant may therefore have a primary monotropy attachment to its mother, and below her the hierarchy of attachments might include its father, siblings, grandparents, etc. Another key feature of Bowlby’s theory is that the infant develops an internal working model of relationships that
By two years old, children begin testing and exploring this idea. Three year olds understand visual perception and the concept of hiding objects. By the time a child is four, they understand that people can have incorrect thoughts about the world. In opposition to the traditional understanding that babies and young children learn and think differently than adults, Gopnik suggests that babies and young children use the same learning methods as scientists. They “observe, formulate theories, make predictions, and do experiments” (Gopnik, 237) to learn about people, objects, and their surroundings.
The key feature of this definition of peer pressure is that individuals in your own age group are actively encouraging or urging you to do something (Brown and Clasen 2012). An explanation of how peer pressure works was given by social psychologist Wendy Treynor. Treynor weaved together two social psychological theories of cognitive dissonance and social comparison into a unified whole to explain peer pressure. This explanation is commonly referred to as the ‘identity shift effect.’ According to Treynor, peer pressure starts with disruption of a child’s sense of peace because of fear of social rejection from its peers. Such a fear comes from failing to adapt to a group’s standard.
Attachment, which emerges gradually during the first year and may be an outgrowth of the parent/infant bond, is a strong emotional relationship directed from the infant to the parent or some other significant person. It is based on the quality of the interactions between the child and the parent or caregiver (Black et.al., 1992). Bowlby believed that an infant and its primary caregiver form an attachment. He argued that the newborn is biologically equipped to elicit attachment behaviour. The baby cries, clings, coos, and smiles.