Outline and Evaluate Two Explanations of Attachment

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Outline and evaluate two explanations of attachment (12) An attachment is a bond between two people especially mother and infant. It keeps a physical closeness between the mother and her child and also promotes a healthy environment. Bowlby's Evolutionary Theory of attachments is that the infant bonds with one special attachment figure who is usually the mother because she is special and unique in attachment. The bond with the mother is special because it is different from all other bonds the child makes, this is called monotropy. Bowlby believed that attachment behaviour was innate and had been passed down through evolution for the survival of the infant. They are born programmed to become attached and that adults are also programmed to attach to their infants. Certain behaviours called social releases encourage the bond. Social releases include smiling, crying, cooing, looking cute etc. they all make adults respond and bond with them. Bowlby also believed that there is a critical period between birth and 2 ½ years. He said if attachment doesn't occur within this age it is impossible for it to occur after. Bowlby said that the first attachment to the mother was very important because it gave the infant a blueprint on how future relationships should be. The child is given information about themselves A study supporting bowlby’s theory is McCarthy. He found that avoidant-insecure infants were more likely to have romantic problems later on in life, and that resistant insecure infants were more likely to have friendship problems. This supports the continuity hypothesis. However, Rutter et al contradicts Bowlbys theory as he found that adopted or abandoned infants were able to form attachments later in life, in effect this contradicts the existence of the critical period. Bowlbys theory is deterministic, as it states that our behaviour in adulthood is a result of
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