John Bowlby adopted the family systems approach theory in relation to his attachment theory. Bowlby’s theories focused more on attachment styles whereas Bowen’s theory was centered specifically on the family as an organization. Bowlby theorized that children have the most successful development within an extended family system. He also believed that the child’s interactions with their caregivers within the first few years of their lives shaped their views of themselves and interactions with others (Blewitt & Broderick, 2015, p. 117). Bowlby in particular believed that the family system was important for a child’s growth and development.
Babies have social releaser which unlocks the innate tendency for adults to care for them; these are both physical and behavioural social releasers. Bowlby adopted the idea of a critical period from ethologists like Lorenz, and applied this to his explanation of how human infants form their attachments. Bowlby has several claims. The first being that we have evolved a biological need to attach to our main caregiver, this being the monotropy attachment. Forming this attachment has survival values, as staying close to the mother ensure food and protection.
Whilst early theories pertaining to maternal interaction and deprivation can be found in the works of Sigmund Freud, Rene Spitz and Harry Harlow, Attachment Psychologist John Bowlby is largely regarded as the pioneer in the field (Peterson, 2004). Bowlby believed attachment to be an innate adaptive method applied by the child in an attempt to meet primary survival needs (i.e. food, shelter, mental stimulation). In order to secure these primary needs, newborn infants will attempt to form secure attachments to primary caregivers. If secured the child will receive ample attention and have basic needs met.
Bowlby begun to explore this. Bowlby (as cited in Oates, 2005) was inspired by this previous ethological work and was interested in linking such findings with human development (Oates, 2005). Bowlby’s focus was children’s attachment during the critical period and the effect it has on later development. Bowlby was influenced by work of Winnicot. Winnicot’s (1953) work on mothers and infants demonstrated the important for mothers to be emotionally ready to be a ‘good enough mother’ by having tolerance of waiting out a child’s frustration and the confidence in providing satisfaction (Oates, 2005).
Reggio Emilia focuses more on the role family centered care play in impacting children’s development. John Dewey supports the idea of making children lifelong learners by increasing their awareness of the world and providing them with the necessary skills to function and operate productively and responsibly in society. All three theorist espouse the fundamental certainty that children if given the proper care and social interactions, can develop into critical conscious beings aware of themselves and the world in which they live. Teacher-child and peer interaction are two integral aspects of children critical development. Vygotsky supports this notion and argues that family centered care increases children’s awareness through dialogue, child initiated play, and other engaging challenging explorations such as small groups interactions and the overall interactions with others.
Parenting Practice over Generations Parenting practice has been a part of child development from the beginning. It is believed that the discipline that the child receives from the parents sets their behavior as well as their lives. Over the years, parenting practice has had patterns of practices in which are process or steps of development within the child’s care. “In the quest of family researchers to identify the factors that contribute to child and family well-being, parenting has emerged as playing a critical role. Parenting has long been recognized as making an important contribution to child development.
Being attached to someone means that you have formed an emotional relationship to that person. This is important thorough out our lives but particularly important during the vulnerable period of infancy when babies rely on caregivers to meet their needs (Cardwell, Clark & Meldrum, 2003). Forming an attachment to a primary caregiver is an innate behaviour and insures survival of the infant. This essay will describe and evaluate Ainsworth’s (1970) Strange Situation procedure and will discuss the types of attachments infant form. The psychologist John Bowlby (1969) suggested that infant attachments influence their emotional development through an internal working model which acts as a template for future relationships.
2.3 Explain how theories of development and frameworks to support development influence current practice. Theories of development and frameworks to support development are incredibly important to us when working with children. They help us to understand children, how they react to things, situations, their behaviour and the way they learn. Different theories and ways of working with children have come together to provide frameworks for children’s care, such as Early Years Foundation Stage (EYFS) which is used within all child care settings. This encourages us to work together, help and check the development of babies, children and young people, to keep them healthy and safe.
Name: PI number: Part A: Essay Option Number: Option 1 Title: Using the case of Jordan Morgan, explain why secure attachment is so important to children’s development and how life story work can be used to support this. Secure attachment has played a big part in the bringing up of children and case studies have shown the difference it can make. This essay will begin by explaining about secure attachment with reference to John Bowlbys attachment theory and the difference it makes. The second part of the essay will be about what is and how to do life story work using the case study of Jordan Morgan and what advantages and disadvantages there are connected with it, and the effect it has on the child whilst doing it. Secure attachment is important when bringing up a child, it
Linking theory with practice enables practitioners to plan age appropriate activities and experiences for the children in their care and thus enhance their development and help them to acquire new skills and knowledge. In this essay the author will discuss the following theorists whose work has been very influential in the field of childcare. Sigmund Freud (1856-1939), Lev Vygotsky (1896-1943), Jean Piaget (1896-1980), B.F. Skinner (1904-1990). Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) Sigmund Freud’s main area of study was emotional and personality development, he was the first psychologist to recognise the importance of the conscious and unconscious mind. Freud’s work is considered important because he showed that childhood experiences and relationships significantly influence the development of personality in later life, (Beaver et al 2002).